Immobilization


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Immobilization

 

(medicine), the act of rendering immovable an injured or painful part of the body, usually an extremity or the spinal column. In bone fractures immobilization prevents injury to vessels, nerves, and other tissues by movable pieces of bone and creates the conditions for their knitting.

When there are open bone fractures and infected wounds of soft tissues, immobilization is one of the methods of preventing and controlling infection. In injuries of the extremities (fractures, dislocations, diseases of the joints, and so on), immobilization is of great value in reducing pain and preventing shock. Immobilization is used in treating a number of diseases of the organs of motion—especially diseases of an inflammatory char acter and tuberculosis of the joints—and after operations in order to keep parts of the body in the necessary position. Good immobilization is assured by obligatory fixation of the two joints closest to the site of injury—for example, in an injury of the shin, the knee and talocrural joints are immobilized.

Temporary immobilization (or immobilization for transportation purposes) and permanent, or therapeutic, immobilization are distinguished. For transport immobilization when giving first aid, special splints are used; if they are not available, splints are made from sticks, boards, or bundles of straw. Therapeutic immobilization is effected by plaster casts and by traction by means of special compression-distraction apparatus, orthopedic corsets, and orthopedic apparatus. In operations for bone fractures, pieces of bone are also joined and immobilized by means of special pins, screws, and plates of stainless steel, titanium, and various alloys.

REFERENCES

Kaplan, A. V. Zakrytye povrezhdeniia kostei i sustavov. Moscow, 1956.
Khromov, B. M. Pervaiapomoshch’pri travmakh i transportirovkaposl-radavshikh.[Leningrad] 1969.

A. V. KAPLAN

References in periodicals archive ?
Following immobilization, the free enzyme was removed by washing the film strips three times with phosphate buffer (0.067 M, pH 6.2) at 25[degrees]C for 5 min and spectrophotometry was used to detect the amount of free enzyme.
The selection of support and method for enzyme immobilization depends on the nature of the support, the simplicity of the method and the intended use of the enzyme (Klibanov, 1983).
According to the company, the Solstice SRS Immobilization System creates a highly customisable and comfortable head and neck immobilisation system for precise treatment to improve patient outcomes.
The average duration of the immobilization was 3.1[+ or -]23.4 (SD) days, the shortest and the longest duration of the immobilization being 1 day and 13 days, respectively.
Conductimetric biosensor for the detection of uric acid by immobilization uricase on nata de coco membrane-Pt electrode.
To determine the efficiency of Pb immobilization, the leaching test based on CSN EN 12457-4 was performed.
Ethanol Immobilization. Twelve grams of support materials was first mixed with 20 mL of ethanol for 18 hours at static condition and room temperature (20[degrees]C).
The immobilized yield was calculated considering the total activity of the free lipase in solution given on the immobilization process (that considers the volume of the enzymatic extract employed on the immobilization test and its activity [U m[L.sup.-1]]) and the immobilized total activity (that considers the total mass of the produced immobilized and its activity (U [g.sup.-1]) according to Equation 2.
We quantified the lowest immobilization threshold as measures of power density ([micro]W/[cm.sup.3]) and voltage gradient (V/cm).
The selection of a suitable carrier material is a key factor in enzyme covalent immobilization [1].
In this context, enzyme immobilization is an attempt to reduce costs, since it allows the reuse for several cycles, minimize autolysis events, and even may improve the kinetic patterns of the immobilized enzyme considering the microenvironment generated by immobilization process [5, 6].
Alginate is a natural polysaccharide widely used as support in immobilization by microencapsulation technologies and composed of alternating chains of [alpha]-L-guluronic acid and [beta]-D-mannuronic acid residues [11, 12].