# Complex

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## complex

1. Maths of or involving one or more complex numbers
2. Psychoanal a group of emotional ideas or impulses that have been banished from the conscious mind but that continue to influence a person's behaviour
3. Informal an obsession or excessive fear
4. a chemical compound in which molecules, groups, or ions are attached to a central metal atom, esp a transition metal atom, by coordinate bonds
5. any chemical compound in which one molecule is linked to another by a coordinate bond

## Complex

(in mathematics), one of the fundamental concepts of combinatorial topology. It is essential to the aims of this science to regard geometric figures as being subdivided into more elementary figures. It is easiest to construct geometric figures out of simplexes, that is, in the case of three-dimensional space, out of points, lines, triangles, and tetrahedra. Thus, we are most often dealing with simplicial complexes.

A simplicial complex is a finite set of simplexes situated in a certain Euclidean (or Hilbert) space and possessing the following property: the intersection of two simplexes of this set is either empty or is a face of each of them. If a complex contains a γ-dimensional simplex and no simplexes of higher dimension, then the complex is termed γ-dimensional. This very simple concept has undergone many generalizations, proceeding in different directions. Together with the just-defined finite complexes it is possible to define countable complexes. It is further possible to proceed from simplicial complexes to analogously defined cell complexes, whose elements are not necessarily simplexes but any convex polyhedrons or even any figures homeomorphic to them; in the latter case, we speak of “curvilinear” complexes. Ordinarily, only those complexes are considered that satisfy the following closure condition: each face of a simplex belonging to a given complex must also belong to that complex. A set that can be represented as a union of simplexes forming an n-dimensional complex is termed an n-dimensional polyhedron.

### REFERENCES

Aleksandrov, P. S. Kombinatornaia topologiia. Moscow-Leningrad, 1947.
Pontriagin, L. S. Osnovy kombinatornoi topologii. Moscow-Leningrad, 1947.

## Complex

in psychology, in the most general sense, a particular combination of psychological processes into some sort of whole; in a narrower sense, the word is taken to mean a group of heterogeneous psychic elements connected by a single affect.

Complex, in the latter sense, has become one of the basic concepts of various schools of depth psychology. According to psychoanalysis (S. Freud, Austria), complexes form around tendencies that are displaced to the subconscious (for example, the Oedipus complex arises as a result of the displacement in early childhood of hostile impulses toward the father). Complexes produce deviations in human behavior that are manifested in the form of improper actions, neuroses, and obsessions. In individual psychology (A. Adler, Austria), an exceptional role is attributed to the inferiority complex—an individual’s feeling of his own organic or mental inadequacy. Overcoming this complex by means of compensation is regarded by Adler to be the principal factor in man’s mental development, character formation, and behavior.

D. N. LIALIKOV

## complex

[′käm‚pleks]
(geology)
An assemblage of rocks that has been folded together, intricately mixed, involved, or otherwise complicated.
(mathematics)
A space which is represented as a union of simplices which intersect only on their faces.
(medicine)
(mineralogy)
Composed of many ingredients.
(psychology)
A group of associated ideas with strong emotional tones, which have been transferred from the conscious mind into the unconscious and which influence the personality.
References in periodicals archive ?
Efficacy of a novel infectious bursal disease virus immune complex vaccine in broiler chickens.
Nomenclature of Small Vessel Vasculitis (a) Immune Complex Vasculitis ANCA-Associated Vasculitis Anti-C1q vasculitis Microscopic polyangiitis Anti-GBM vasculitis Granulomatosis with Cryoglobulinemic vasculitis polyangiitis IgA vasculitis Eosinophilic granulomatosis Hypocomplementemic with polyangiitis urticarial vasculitis Abbreviations: ANCA, antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody;GBM, glomerular basement membrane disease;IgA, immunoglobulin A.
Novel therapeutic approach by culture filtrate of Cryptococcus neoformans vargattii (CneF) in experimental immune complex glomerulonephritis.
Laboratory procedures such as antigen testing, antigen testing after immune complex disruption, DNA-PCR, and reverse-transcriptase PCR can assist in defining the HlV-infection status of such persons.
Interestingly, piperacillin appears to bind covalently to RBCs (6); however, antipiperacillin antibodies are best demonstrated through the complement-associated immune complex method.
The MINIs line features four multivitamins (Multi Complete, Multi for Her, Multi for Her 50+ and Multi for Him) and three complementary products (Super Omega-3, Super B Complex and Super D Immune Complex.
Now, his team has found that when these RNAs build up in the eye they trigger activation of an immune complex known as the NLRP3 inflammasome.
Connective tissue disorders (systemic lupus erythematous and Sjogren's syndrome in particular), infections, hematologic and immune complex diseases, drugs, and malignancies have been reported in association with UV (1-3), but were ruled out in our patient.
Purpura and petechiae may be a result of thrombocytopenia, cytoadherance, local vasculitis and vessel damage from immune complex injury (2).
Immune complex production and deposition as well as complement activation have been regarded as the principal aetiology of erythema nodosum leprosum (ENL).
Another finding, RA is an immune complex disease in which complement is activated, as Peter Ward and Nathan Zvaifler were the first to document.

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