Immune Serum


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immune serum

[i′myün ‚sir·əm]
(immunology)
Blood serum obtained from an immunized individual and carrying antibodies.

Serum, Immune

 

a preparation made from animal or human blood and containing antibodies against the causative agents of infectious diseases or the products of the agents’ activity. Immune serum is used in serodiagnosis, seroprophylaxis, and serotherapy. In preparing immune serum, blood serum is taken from animals, human donors, or convalescents that have been immunized by specific antigens against a particular disease. The blood serum is processed in various ways, depending on the type of immune serum and its intended purpose: it is purified to remove neutral substances and isolate the active (chiefly globulin) protein fractions and is then concentrated.

The introduction of immune serum from animal blood into the human body may cause such complications as serum sickness and anaphylactic shock. These complications are almost never caused by concentrated immune serums from human blood, called gamma globulins, or, more precisely, immunoglobulins, since they retain the various globulin fractions. Such concentrated serums are retained in the body longer than other serums.

Immune serums may be therapeutic, prophylactic, or diagnostic. The therapeutic and prophylactic serums are subdivided into antitoxic, antibacterial, and antiviral serums. Antitoxic serums combat the toxic metabolites of microbes; examples are antitetanic, antidiphtheric, and antigangrenous serums. The antitoxic serums also combat the aftereffects of the bites of poisonous snakes and insects. Antibacterial serums, such as antianthrax gamma globulin, combat microorganisms. Antiviral serums contain gamma globulins that provide immunity against measles and influenza; antirabies serum combats the effects of rabies. Diagnostic immune serums are made from different antigens, depending on the nature of the reaction for which they are used. They are used to identify the causative agents of infectious diseases and in experiments.

REFERENCES

Mnogotomnoe rukovodslvo po mikrobiologii, klinike i epidemiologii infektsionnykh boleznei, vol. 3. Leningrad [1964].
Prakticheskaia immunologiia. Moscow 1969.
V. L. VASILEVSKII
Immune serums used in the prevention and treatment of infectious diseases in animals are obtained from animals that have been immunized with chemically treated antigens. Such serums include antianthrax serum, Aujeszky’s disease serum, swine erysipelas serum, lamb dysenteric serum, trivalent serum against hemorrhagic septicemia, and antitoxic serums against salmonellosis and colibacillosis. Veterinary laboratories use diagnostic immune serums to identify the causative agents of such infectious diseases of animals as anthrax, brucellosis, salmonellosis, listeriosis, and leptospirosis.

REFERENCES

Biologicheskie i khimioterapevticheskie veterinarnye preparaty. Moscow, 1963.
Veterinarnoe zakonodatel’stvo, vol. 1. Moscow, 1972. Pages 612–30,

O. A. POLIAKOVA

References in periodicals archive ?
To that end, we diluted the anti-C 131-150 immune serum in whole nonimmune serum, mimicking a weak antibody concentration in a complex medium.
Moreover, although the isolates were successfully neutralized in vitro with the Lim-Benyesh-Melnick immune serum pools, the amino acid changes affecting VP1 should be taken into account during the evaluation of the neutralization test results.
The immune serum used in passive immunization experiments was prepared by pooling convalescent-phase serum samples of six hamsters that were bled 5 weeks after infection with WNV strain NY385-99.
Convalescent-phase sera from some of these animals were used to prepare the WNV immune serum used in the passive immunization experiments described below.
In the past, antibody-based therapies were dependent on immune serum that was limited in availability and was associated with substantial side effects when the serum originated from animals (2,3).
Lassa immune serum. Bull World Health Organ 1977; 55:435-9.
Immunochemistry experiments were performed using the immune serum and pre-immune serum on whole tentacles and isolated cnidocytes.
A band of 109 kDa was stained by the anti-GFP antibody and the immune serum (Fig.
In the present study we achieved to produce a hyperimmune seraum against Pasteurella multocida (PM) in rabbits and evaluated the efficacy of this hyper immune serum in PM- infected rabbits.
A subset of DENV immune serum was obtained from a reference panel distributed by the Pediatric Dengue Vaccine Initiative.
Generally, [greater than or equal to]50% opsonic killing activity of immune serum is considered biologically significant [10].
The most effective was the fourth pool of immune serum to the IIIrd isoform.