Lead (Pb) exposure may cause anemia, hypertension, renal impairment, immunotoxicity
and toxicity to the reproductive organs."
Most of attention was directed toward gasoline related immunotoxicity
through decreasing number of immunoglobulins (IgA, IgG) which are often measured to give information about immune system homeostasis (Marques et al, 2016).
Assessment of T cell-dependent antibody responses (TDAR) has long been a key method for the assessment of immunotoxicity
. Animals are vaccinated with a model antigen such as keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) and the resulting antigen-specific antibody production is measured.
Tier 1 HTT includes in vitro assays focused on multiple end points, including hepatotoxicity, immunotoxicity
, developmental toxicity, mitochondrial toxicity, and developmental neurotoxicity along with assays to estimate in vivo toxicokinetics.
Besides such usefulness, fluoride is accused of causing chronic abdomen pain (Chahal et al., 2014), oxidative stress(Al-Anazi et al., 2015);nephrotoxicity (Song et al., 2017); neuropathological alterations (Balaji et al., 2015); immunotoxicity
(Reddy et al., 2014); skeletal disruptions (Yan et al., 2015); and apoptosis in erythrocytes (Agalakova and Gusev 2013).
Efficacy of polyvinylpolypyrrolidone in reducing the immunotoxicity
of aflatoxin in growing broilers.
Understanding the correlation between in vitro and in vivo immunotoxicity
tests for nanomedicines.
The p-JNK may be related to chronic kidney damage and immunotoxicity
It is also associated with skin lesions, diabetes, cardiovascular disease (Hughes, Beck, Chen, Lewis, & Thomas, 2011), and immunotoxicity
(Dangleben, Skibola, & Smith, 2013).
Regarding non-cancer health hazards, EPA will evaluate acute toxicity, liver toxicity, thyroid toxicity, reproductive/developmental toxicity, neurotoxicity, immunotoxicity
, sensitization, and irritation.
The pH and electrical conductivity affect human skin and cause regulatory and auto-regulatory physiological dysfunctioning and disorder of human body resulting in many medical complexities and issues, while the metals and ions in particulate matter affect respiratory system, cardiovascular system, cause cancer, genotoxicity, neurotoxicity, immunotoxicity
, affect eyes, liver, pancrease and glucose metabolism .