Considering the breakdown of low-conducting and dielectric liquids, the authors of  advance the idea of the significant role of emission, impact ionization
, and autoionization of liquid molecules.
used GC-MS with electron impact ionization
and negative chemical ionization (GC/NCI-MS) and the traditional GC-MS with electron ionization mass spectrometry (GC/EI-MS) to analyze opiates, amphetamines, and ketamines in human hair.
Robbins, "Aspects of the theory of impact ionization
in semiconductors (I)," Physica Status Solidi (B), vol.
The quantitative analysis was done by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry instrument (GC-MS-QP2010, Shimadzu, Japan) in the electron impact ionization
The avalanche breakdown has been theoretically formulated to study the impact ionization
coefficients of electrons and holes [7-9].
During the study of breakdown voltage, impact ionization
is one of the important parameters on which the breakdown voltage depends, is strongly related to the distribution of electric field in the drift region .
We presently focus on HEMT operation in mobility regime (Vds = 80 mV) in which we will demonstrate that no impact ionization
The mechanisms of free carrier generation existing in transparent materials are multiphoton interband transitions [23-26] and impact ionization
Candidates using alternative current transport mechanisms, their modeling, and potential applications discussed include: e.g., the Tunneling Field Effect Transistor (TFET), vertical Impact Ionization
MOSFET (vertical I-MOS), and lateral Impact Ionization
MOSFET (lateral I-MOS).
Scientists also determined that such multiple-exciton production takes place by means of a process called impact ionization
. Roughly speaking, an electron from an exciton strikes au electron bound to an atom, creating another exciton.
This so-called impact ionization
in creases overall efficiency by as much as 35 percent, the researchers say.