duty

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duty,

in taxation: see tarifftariff,
tax on imported and, more rarely, exported goods. It is also called a customs duty. Tariffs may be distinguished from other taxes in that their predominant purpose is not financial but economic—not to increase a nation's revenue but to protect domestic industries
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; excise taxesexcise taxes,
governmental levies on specific goods produced and consumed inside a country. They differ from tariffs, which usually apply only to foreign-made goods, and from sales taxes, which typically apply to all commodities other than those specifically exempted.
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.

Duty

 

a category of ethics that expresses the moral task of a particular individual, group of individuals, class, or people under specific social conditions and situations, a task that for them becomes an internally acceptable obligation. In this respect duty differs from the more abstract concept of what is due or fitting, which encompasses all the demands made on people in the form of norms.

In the history of mankind’s moral consciousness, duty has been interpreted in different ways, according to social or class conceptions of man’s obligations at a particular period in history; it has always been connected with specific problems of a time and of a given society. The concept of duty has included the fulfillment of the “simplest rules of the community of man,” which had been developed in the course of history. The problem of the nature of duty has always given rise to disagreement among the various schools and trends of philosophical ethics. The foundations of duty have been connected with the interpretation of moral necessity—the fulfillment of divine commands, cosmic or supernatural laws, official or unofficial social precepts, or self-realization of the internal potential of the personality.

In Marxist ethics, moral duty is regarded as the concretization of general requirements of morality, which have a historical origin and which pertain to existing circumstances, conditions, and a person’s abilities and potentials. These requirements determine the conditions and degree of his responsibility and constitute his motives and conscience. Thus, duty expresses the moral specifics of the socio-ideological position of personality with respect to the existing social situation and to the conflict and disposition of class forces, as well as the moral specifics of internal convictions and the means of their realization.

REFERENCES

Marx, K., and F. Engels. “Nemetskaia ideologiia.” Soch., 2nd ed., vol. 3, pp. 235-36.
Lenin, V. I. “Gosudarstvo i revoliutsiia.” Poln. sobr. soch., 5th ed., vol. 33, chap. 5.
Lenin, V. I. “Zadachi soiuzov molodezhi.” Poln. sobr. soch., 5th ed., vol. 41.
Arkhangel’skii, L. M. Kategorii marksistskoi etiki. Moscow, 1963.

O. G. DROBNITSKII

What does it mean when you dream about duty?

To feel bound by duty in a dream may be a reflection of the dreamer’s past experiences in the military. If, however, the dreamer is overly concerned with duty in their dreams, perhaps compulsive behavior or control issues are posing problems.

duty

1. a government tax, esp on imports
2. Brit
a. the quantity or intensity of work for which a machine is designed
b. a measure of the efficiency of a machine
References in periodicals archive ?
Senator Ajayi Borofice, (Ondo North) said the policy of downward review of import duty was not healthy for local manufacturers and called for a holistic review of import substitution strategy to save local industries.
"I am sure that the import duty hike will see the return of Indian buyers, especially tourists, wanting to buy costlier jewellery pieces.
The fixed import duty begins with a minimum Rs400 per set and goes as high as Rs41,000, according to the Federal Board of Revenue (FBR).
The low import duty of 2.5 per cent encourages steel players to go for import rather than utilising the local ore, he had said.
In addition to model shifting and/or curtailing savings and expenditures on services, there is a geographic fix to the import duty problem.
EO 21 - Modifying the nomenclature and rates of import duty on certain information technology products under Section 1611 of the Customs Modernization and Tariff Act, in order to implement the Philippines' Tariff Commitments under the World Trade Organization - Information Technology Agreement
APTMA-SB Zone also mentioned that a removal of import duty was also demanded two months ago against which demand the relevant Ministry had said that it was too early to remove this duty and the government wanted to wait till the major portion of the local crop was sold and of the hands of the farmers.
Almost 100% soybean is imported to produce quality poultry feed which includes regulatory import duty of 40%.
To support their demand, the symposium participants cited the example of India, which has imposed 100% import duty on import of processed chicken and its value-added products to safeguard its nascent poultry farming and processing sector.
The Ministry of Finance stated on 8 April 2016 that it is concerned about the impact of the higher import duty on wheat on the price of bread and other staple food, but that it is also mindful of the need to ensure policy certainty, food security and the financial health of the farming industry.
After careful consideration, the Ministry of Finance has decided to approve the implementation of an amendment to the import duty (tariff) on wheat, in accordance with the current variable import duty formula.
It follows a decision on February 8 to hike the import duty on tobacco from 100 per cent to 200pc.