In wave-guide oscillator structure, magnitude of the quadrature signal is made equal to that of the in-phase signal
by multiplying the quadrature component with a gain factor [g.sub.1] = (cos([omega]T) - 1)/sin([omega]T) as shown in Fig.
It is obvious from Figures 7(a)-7(c) that the HWHM bandwidths of both the in-phase signal
, [[DELTA]v.sub.X], and the quadrature signal, [[DELTA]v.sub.Y], are equal and smaller than the HWHM bandwidth, [DELTA]v, of the phase-shift signal.
Due to the significant phase slope difference between the two paths, the in-phase signal
summation occurs at the passband edges and does not have any effect on the overall response.
The power divider is used to split the equal in-phase signal
power, while the open/short stubs with three-conductor coupled lines are employed as phase shifters to produce the anti-phase outputs.
As shown in Figure 4, an LO signal at the IF frequency is split into an in-phase signal
and a quadrature signal.
Moreover, the signals from Port 1 are equally split to Ports 3-6, wherein Ports 3 and 6 are with in-phase signals
, as well as Ports 4 and 5.
If the input ports (ports 1 and 1') are excited by differential-mode signals, the out-of-phase signals will be converted to in-phase signals
when they pass through the 180[degrees] swap structure, then a virtual open appears at the symmetrical line T-T' and a wideband BPF is constructed.
A signal excited on Port 2 will be evenly split into two in-phase signals
at Port 1 and Port 3, and Port 4 will be isolated.
The first section is a power divider which provides two well-balanced equal amplitude in-phase signals
over a broad frequency range.
One technique shown by Case B is to utilize the feeding ports in opposite directions and to inject two out-of-phase signals; on the other hand, the other technique shown by Case C is to utilize the feeding ports in the same direction and to inject two in-phase signals
. In Fig.