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Specifically, we noted evidence that even if proper administration were achieved, errors in the lethal injection protocol drug design might result in inadequate anesthesia and severe pain during the process.
Our studies presented here and published in the Lancet in 2005 and PLoS Medicine in 2007 provide strong evidence that the lethal injection protocol provides a substantial risk of inadequate anesthesia both due to failures of process, as well as problems in the protocol design itself.
(11-14) A compilation of studies by Malamed demonstrated inadequate anesthesia with the Gow-Gates nerve block technique 0 to 8% of the time, compared with inadequate anesthesia (5 to 29%) with the inferior alveolar nerve block.
Bispectral index increases and decreases are not always signs of inadequate anesthesia. Anesthesiology.