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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



the offspring of a cross-pollinating plant obtained as a result of repeated forced self-pollination. With repeated self-pollination the viability and yield of the offspring are decreased, while the homogeneity in respect to the genotype is increased. As a result of heterosis, hybrids from the crossbreeding of inbreds are substantially superior to the parent forms in vigor of development and seed yield. For this reason, inbreds are important in the production of hybrid seeds of corn, sugar beets, cucumbers, and other crops.

Varieties or hybrids serve as the initial material in the development of inbreds. Succeeding generations are culled until the necessary homogeneity is attained, usually in the sixth generation. In culling, special attention is paid to the combining ability of the inbred. Only inbreds that with cross-pollination produce high-yield hybrids are selected. Inbreds are used to obtain hybrids of various types—for example, simple and double hybrids between lines and between varieties and lines. The highest yields are obtained from hybrids between lines, which are widely used, for example, in corn production.


Guliaev, G. V., and Iu. L. Guzhov. Selektsiia i semenovodstvo polevykh kul’tur. Moscow, 1972.


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
All the significant and positive SCA effects for PY and GY were recorded in the crosses among Sosat C 88 with the inbred lines IBL 179-2-1, IBL 091-1-1, and IBL 021-3-1.
Out of thirty inbred lines, ten lines viz., DMIT 105, DMIT 106, DMIT 111, DMIT 113, DMIT 118, DMIT 121, DMIT 123, DMIT 124, DMIT 125 and DMIT 126 recorded less than or equal to score 2 and grouped them as resistant; twelve inbred lines viz., DMIT 101, DMIT 103, DMIT 104, DMIT 107, DMIT 108, DMIT 109, DMIT 110, DMIT 112, DMIT 119, DMIT 122, DMIT 127 and DMIT 129 possessing score 3.0 were categorized as moderate resistant and eight inbred lines viz., DMIT 102, DMIT 114, DMIT 117, DMIT 120, DMIT 130, DMIT 115, DMIT 116 and DMIT 128 exhibited TLB score 4 were categorized as susceptible and susceptible check (CM202) had score 5 was categorized as highly susceptible to TLB (Table 2).
Higher means from the expected inbred lines expected for YU and YC were observed with genotypes AG4051 and AM811, and for GM, the AM811 and Cativerde 02 genotypes were superior.
NP, number of panicles per plant; NGP, number of grains per panicle; NSP, number of spikelets per panicle; SF, spikelet fertility; TGW, 1000-grain weight; GY, grain yield per plant; RIL, recombinant inbred line; TC, testcross [F.sub.1]; [H.sub.MP], mid-parent heterosis.
Also, these inbred lines showed good agronomical characteristics; such as good appearance and health on plant and ear, tolerant to lodging, with good husk cover, dent and semi-dent texture; in addition to the advantages that the high quality protein maize represents for consumers (Ortega et al, 1986; Bressani, 1994; Larkins et al., 1994; Mertz, 1994; Vasal, 2002; Chavez and Munoz, 2004; Espinosa et al., 2005, 2006).
Among the tested primers, E-ACT x M-CTG, E-ACT x M-CTT, E-AAC x M-CAA, E-AAC x M-CAC, E-AAC x M-CAG and E-AAC x M-CAT were important combinations for either germplasm screening, landrace accessions, inbred lines and other studies like genetic mapping and molecular assisted selection.
Results of ANOVA showed significant differences among different levels of drought stress, inbred lines and interaction between drought stress and inbred lines had for grain yield, grain starch percent and grain protein percent under studied conditions (Table 2), which demonstrated existence of high diversity among inbred lines studied for drought tolerance and different between time of applied stress.
The Syn1 generation for each experimental OPV was formed at Harare in summer 1997-1998, using 34 plants for each FS, or 17-34 plants for each of one to four inbred lines derived from each of the 14 selected FS (Table 2), dividing the families into two groups, and making half-sib pollinations among the two groups on at least three dates.
Some authorities say heirloom vegetables are those introduced before 1951, when modern plant breeders introduced the first hybrids developed from inbred lines. While there are good reasons to use 1951 as a cut-off, many heirloom gardeners focus on varieties that date from the 1920s and earlier.
For example, whereas selected lines bred for high and low alcohol consumption should differ in the amount of alcohol ingested but not in an unrelated trait (e.g., coat color), inbred lines may differ in both alcohol consumption and the unrelated trait.
alba were sampled, and five generations of sib mating resulted in 65 inbred lines, with inbreeding coefficients of f = 0, 0.25, 0.375, 0.5, and 0.59 per line.