# incidence angle

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## incidence angle

[′in·səd·əns ‚aŋ·gəl]
(optics)

## incidence angle

In radar, the angle formed between an imaginary line normal to the surface and another connecting the antenna to the target.
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The difference between ideal specific enthalpy rise ([DELTA][h.sub.s = 0]) and actual specific enthalpy rise should be dependent on incidence angles ([beta]) and velocities (V) through the stage, but no standard model exists.
Moreover, SAR data is more sensitive to soil roughness at high incidence angles (Baghdadi 2006).
Wind is directly affecting Face C for wind incidence angle 0[degrees] to 180[degrees], respectively, so the pressure distribution is symmetrical about vertical axis, and vortices generated at the wake region are also symmetrical for both the cases (Figure 6).
The section lift coefficient, the total lift coefficient, and the coefficient of the induced drag of each lifting surface of tandem wing configuration with different gap, stagger, incidence angle, and wingspan are calculated and analyzed by using the method proposed.
Moreover, incidence angle modifier (IAM) is determined as a ratio of instantaneous thermal efficiency at an angle of incidence to peak thermal efficiency as [24, 25]
where [mathematical expression not reproducible] is the array manifold array of the nth sampling moment and s(n) = [[s.sub.0](n), ..., [s.sub.k] (n), ..., [s.sub.K-1] (n)] denotes incoming spatial signals with incidence angle vector [THETA] = [[[theta].sub.0], ..., [[theta].sub.k], ..., [[theta].sub.K-1]]] and spatial frequency vector [mathematical expression not reproducible].
When the incidence angle between the cylindrical wave and tube wall exceeds some critical value, Mach reflection occurs.
First, at a given time t, the incidence angle [[alpha].sub.i](t, x) is not constant along the vehicle.
Total internal reflection (TIR) is an optical phenomenon when light travels from material (medium) with lower optical density to a secondary material (medium) with higher optical density at a light incidence angle greater than specific critical angle, then refraction becomes equal to 90[degrees] and theoretically all light energy is reflected at the boundary surface, none is transmitted:
As it was found in the previous study , RTP is characterized by a retroreflection efficiency (RRE) of 99.994% that is attained when the incoming beam enters the element at a 0[degrees] incidence angle (e.g.

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