The difference between ideal specific enthalpy rise ([DELTA][h.sub.s = 0]) and actual specific enthalpy rise should be dependent on incidence angles
([beta]) and velocities (V) through the stage, but no standard model exists.
Moreover, SAR data is more sensitive to soil roughness at high incidence angles
Wind is directly affecting Face C for wind incidence angle
0[degrees] to 180[degrees], respectively, so the pressure distribution is symmetrical about vertical axis, and vortices generated at the wake region are also symmetrical for both the cases (Figure 6).
For a given incidence angle
9, the WCM can be represented as follows:
The section lift coefficient, the total lift coefficient, and the coefficient of the induced drag of each lifting surface of tandem wing configuration with different gap, stagger, incidence angle
, and wingspan are calculated and analyzed by using the method proposed.
Moreover, incidence angle
modifier (IAM) is determined as a ratio of instantaneous thermal efficiency at an angle of incidence to peak thermal efficiency as [24, 25]
where [mathematical expression not reproducible] is the array manifold array of the nth sampling moment and s(n) = [[s.sub.0](n), ..., [s.sub.k] (n), ..., [s.sub.K-1] (n)] denotes incoming spatial signals with incidence angle
vector [THETA] = [[[theta].sub.0], ..., [[theta].sub.k], ..., [[theta].sub.K-1]]] and spatial frequency vector [mathematical expression not reproducible].
When the incidence angle
between the cylindrical wave and tube wall exceeds some critical value, Mach reflection occurs.
First, at a given time t, the incidence angle
[[alpha].sub.i](t, x) is not constant along the vehicle.
Total internal reflection (TIR) is an optical phenomenon when light travels from material (medium) with lower optical density to a secondary material (medium) with higher optical density at a light incidence angle
greater than specific critical angle, then refraction becomes equal to 90[degrees] and theoretically all light energy is reflected at the boundary surface, none is transmitted:
As it was found in the previous study , RTP is characterized by a retroreflection efficiency (RRE) of 99.994% that is attained when the incoming beam enters the element at a 0[degrees] incidence angle