# inclined plane

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## inclined plane,

simple machinemachine,
arrangement of moving and stationary mechanical parts used to perform some useful work or to provide transportation. From a historical perspective, many of the first machines were the result of human efforts to improve war-making capabilities; the term engineer
, consisting of a sloping surface, whose purpose is to reduce the force that must be applied to raise a load. To raise a body vertically a force must be applied that is equal to the weight of the body, i.e., the product of its mass and the acceleration of gravity. The amount of work done (i.e., energy expended) in raising the body is equal to its weight times the distance through which it is raised. By means of an inclined plane a force smaller than the weight of the body can be exerted over a distance greater than the direct vertical distance, doing work equal to the product of the force and the distance through which it acts. If friction is ignored, the work done using the inclined plane will be exactly equal to the work done in lifting the body directly. In any real system some work is done to overcome friction between the plane and the load. The actual mechanical advantage of an inclined plane is the ratio of the load lifted to the force applied; ideally it is equal to the ratio of the length of the sloping plane to its vertical rise. An inclined plane whose sloping length is 5 m and whose vertical rise is 1 m has a mechanical advantage of 5; a 300-newton load can be moved up such a plane by a 60-newton force. The inclined plane has been modified in many ways. The screw and wedge are applications of the principle of the inclined plane but do not require that the load be moved vertically for their successful operation. The chisel, carpenter's plane, auger bit, and ax are some of the many tools based on this principle. Switchbacks on mountain roads are inclined planes that reduce the effort of an automobile engine but increase the distance a car must travel to ascend the mountain.

## inclined plane

[′in‚klīnd ′plān]
(mechanics)
A plane surface at an angle to some force or reference line.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
References in periodicals archive ?
He employs graphs to illustrate displacement, velocity, and acceleration for his inclined plane project in the story.
The tub-boats that carried goods up and down the inclined plane are no longer on the tracks but they can be found elsewhere on the museum site.
"I remember seeing excavators reveal the track bed of the inclined plane at Windmill Farm, and trying to make sense of the remains of the Ketley incline from early 19th century maps.
The slope of the runway represents acceleration down an inclined plane. An aircraft sliding down an inclined plane will not accelerate like it was dropped off a cliff.
Stations should include the following: a board balanced on books (lever); a board placed at an angle on the side of a stack of books (inclined plane); a doorstop (wedge); a piece of string wrapped around a pencil that's balanced between two desks (pulley); a piece of wood, some screws, and a screwdriver (screws); and spools and pencils (wheels and axles).
Watch colourful canal boats take 45 minutes to move up it's staircase flight of 10 locks on the Gran Union Canal, see the Victorian inclined plane boat lift, and explore the side ponds and trails.
The bucket vacuum, attached via a hose, creates the suction needed to suck the bees through another hose into the box at the bottom, along an inclined plane, and into the hive super.
Whether on a flat surface, on an inclined plane or a downward slope, every cyclist or one who has ever ridden a bicycle is familiar with the jolt of adrenaline or the gush of endorphins that linger even after one gets off his bicycle.
(i) An algorithm to rectify EPI for a flat surface, which can also be expanded to other tasks such as refocusing in an inclined plane.

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