ataxia

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Related to incoordination: dystaxia

ataxia

(ətăk`sēə), lack of coordination of the voluntary muscles resulting in irregular movements of the body. Ataxia can be brought on by an injury, infection, or degenerative disease of the central nervous system, e.g., syphilis, encephalitis, brain tumor, or multiple sclerosis. The term also designates a specific type of cerebral palsycerebral palsy
, disability caused by brain damage before or during birth or in the first years, resulting in a loss of voluntary muscular control and coordination. Although the exact cause is unknown, apparent predisposing factors include disease (e.g.
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.

Ataxia

 

a disturbance in the coordination of voluntary movements. The coordination of a number of muscle groups, which in turn depends on the activity of many parts of the brain (cerebellum, cortex, and so forth), is required for the proper and precise execution of movements and for the maintenance of balance in various body positions. Impulses from muscles, tendons, joints, and ligaments travel via the posterior columns of the spinal cord to the brain. Signals from the semicircular canals of the inner ear are very important for the coordination of movements.

Ataxia appears when there is a disease in one or more of the links in this system. Autonomic, cerebellar, frontal, and labyrinthic ataxias are distinguished according to the site of the condition. Static ataxia (disruption of balance when the person is standing) and locomotor ataxia (actual disruption of the coordination of movement) are distinguished according to clinical manifestations. Sensory ataxia is observed in disease of the peripheral nerves or of the posterior columns of the spinal cord. When the patient stands with his feet together and his eyes closed, his torso begins to sway. His gait is disrupted, and he moves slowly, looking at his feet and casting them far out to either side. In cerebellar ataxia (which affects the connections or structures of the cerebellum) the patient uses excessive space to execute movements; for example, in trying to touch an object, he brings his arm out too far (hypermetria). His speech loses coherence—he speaks loudly, then softly, dividing his words into syllables (scanning). When rising from a lying to a standing position without using his hands, the patient raises his legs instead of his torso. His gait resembles that of an inebriate. Frontal ataxia, which occurs with the disruption of frontal-cerebellar pathways, is similar to cerebellar ataxia in its manifestations. Labyrinthic ataxia is manifested in severe dizziness and horizontal nystagmus. The treatment of ataxia consists of eliminating the fundamental disease with which it is associated, doing therapeutic exercise, and aiding in the restoration of proper coordination of movement.

REFERENCES

Mnogotomnoe rukovodstvo po nevrologii, vol. 7. Edited by S. N. Davidenkov. Moscow, 1960. Page 217.
Davidenkov, S. N. Klinicheskie lektsii po nervnym bolezniam, issue 4. Leningrad, 1961.

A. M. VEIN

ataxia

[ə′tak·sē·ə]
(medicine)
Lack of muscular coordination due to any of several nervous system diseases.

ataxia

, ataxy
Pathol lack of muscular coordination
References in periodicals archive ?
Group Dose Deaths Symptoms (mg/kg) Control -- 0 none EOPPgfl 1000 0 none 2000 0 none 3000 0 Lethargy, motor incoordination and anesthesia 4000 n=5 (62.5%) Lethargy, motor incoordination and anesthesia 8000 n=5 (62.5%) Motor incoordination, tachypnea and asphyxia n=8 animals for control and each dose.
In another study with Iranian teachers, the opposite result was found: the study group presented lower MPT values, a finding attributed to the pneumo-phono-articulatory incoordination of the teacher group [21].
(%) Feather disorders 18 (30) Dyspnea 17 (28) Vision disorders and eye lesions 12 (20) Brittle beak and/or nails 12 (20) Falling over 12 (20) Polyuria 10 (17) No clinical signs 9 (15) Lameness and/or paralysis 8 (13) Incoordination 6 (10) Vomiting and/or regurgitation 5 (8) Swellings or granulomas 4 (7) Inability to fly 4 (7) Egg binding 3 (5) Diarrhea 3 (5) Undigested feces 2 (3) Epileptic fits 2 (3) Discolored feces 2 (3) Increased food uptake 2 (3) Circular movement 1 (2) Table 3.
However, the combination groups manifested higher degree of analgesia, motor incoordination and sedation.
Common criteria by healthcare professionals for referral of infants and children for feeding and swallowing evaluation included: suckling and swallowing incoordination, weak suck, breathing disruptions or apnoea during feeding, excessive gagging or recurrent coughing during feeds, diagnosis of disorders associated with dysphagia or under-nutrition, severe irritability during feeding, history of recurrent pneumonia and feeding difficulty, concern for possible aspiration during feeds, lethargy or decreased arousal during feeds, tedious feeding times and nasopharyngeal reflux during feeding.
The falloff time is measured for rotarod evaluation to measure motor incoordination. A significant decrease was observed in the falloff time in the control group as compared to the sham group, showing motor incoordination and muscle weakness.
These alterations are associated with muscle weakness, motor incoordination, motor dysfunction, and impairments of balance in the poststroke phase [17, 18].
We noticed a residual NMB even after the 20 minutes of neostigmine administration and showed significant fade on TOF stimulation along with inadequate tidal volume, poor respiratory efforts, and incoordination in hand movements.
Of interest is the fact that the diverticuli were probably a manifestation of a broader pharyngeal swallowing disorder, the full resolution of which occurred once incoordination at the cricopharyngeal level was addressed.
Collaborative investigations into incoordination (ataxia) and death in Eastern Grey Kangaroos caused by chronic Phalaris (introduced pasture plant) toxicity were published (Bacci et al.
Clinical symptoms to identify rabid dogs include biting other dogs, humans or objects, abnormal behaviour, chewing objects other than food, hyper salivation, abnormal licking of water or urine, fly biting, choking sounds, drooping jaw, aggression, incoordination, paralysis, convulsions and death.
"After my diagnosis, I developed muscle weakness and incoordination that made playing any instrument difficult," See explains.