ataxia

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Related to incoordination: dystaxia

ataxia

(ətăk`sēə), lack of coordination of the voluntary muscles resulting in irregular movements of the body. Ataxia can be brought on by an injury, infection, or degenerative disease of the central nervous system, e.g., syphilis, encephalitis, brain tumor, or multiple sclerosis. The term also designates a specific type of cerebral palsycerebral palsy
, disability caused by brain damage before or during birth or in the first years, resulting in a loss of voluntary muscular control and coordination. Although the exact cause is unknown, apparent predisposing factors include disease (e.g.
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.

Ataxia

 

a disturbance in the coordination of voluntary movements. The coordination of a number of muscle groups, which in turn depends on the activity of many parts of the brain (cerebellum, cortex, and so forth), is required for the proper and precise execution of movements and for the maintenance of balance in various body positions. Impulses from muscles, tendons, joints, and ligaments travel via the posterior columns of the spinal cord to the brain. Signals from the semicircular canals of the inner ear are very important for the coordination of movements.

Ataxia appears when there is a disease in one or more of the links in this system. Autonomic, cerebellar, frontal, and labyrinthic ataxias are distinguished according to the site of the condition. Static ataxia (disruption of balance when the person is standing) and locomotor ataxia (actual disruption of the coordination of movement) are distinguished according to clinical manifestations. Sensory ataxia is observed in disease of the peripheral nerves or of the posterior columns of the spinal cord. When the patient stands with his feet together and his eyes closed, his torso begins to sway. His gait is disrupted, and he moves slowly, looking at his feet and casting them far out to either side. In cerebellar ataxia (which affects the connections or structures of the cerebellum) the patient uses excessive space to execute movements; for example, in trying to touch an object, he brings his arm out too far (hypermetria). His speech loses coherence—he speaks loudly, then softly, dividing his words into syllables (scanning). When rising from a lying to a standing position without using his hands, the patient raises his legs instead of his torso. His gait resembles that of an inebriate. Frontal ataxia, which occurs with the disruption of frontal-cerebellar pathways, is similar to cerebellar ataxia in its manifestations. Labyrinthic ataxia is manifested in severe dizziness and horizontal nystagmus. The treatment of ataxia consists of eliminating the fundamental disease with which it is associated, doing therapeutic exercise, and aiding in the restoration of proper coordination of movement.

REFERENCES

Mnogotomnoe rukovodstvo po nevrologii, vol. 7. Edited by S. N. Davidenkov. Moscow, 1960. Page 217.
Davidenkov, S. N. Klinicheskie lektsii po nervnym bolezniam, issue 4. Leningrad, 1961.

A. M. VEIN

ataxia

[ə′tak·sē·ə]
(medicine)
Lack of muscular coordination due to any of several nervous system diseases.

ataxia

, ataxy
Pathol lack of muscular coordination
References in periodicals archive ?
However, Analgesia, motor incoordination and sedation were more marked with ropivacaine and fentanyl combination to permit longer duration of operative procedures involving hindquarter area (posterior to umbilicus).
19] These difficulties may be due to incoordination of SSB as the suckling patterns of preterm infants often remain significantly less efficient than those of full-term infants at term age and beyond.
In conclusion, it can be said that, within our limited setup, which includes mainly clinical criteria, the preponderance of coughing and choking occurring owing to incoordination of airway and swallowing reflexes following at least minor pulmonary aspirations during swallowing of solid and liquid substances is definitely and significantly increased in patients with diabetic neuropathy when compared with normal and healthy controls.
Five of the 31 persons had health effects considered moderate, including asthma attack, respiratory distress requiring hospitalization, paresthesias, and incoordination.
Motor deficit due to the lumbosacral regional anaesthesia was also graded on a 0 to 3 score scale--0: walking without staggering, 1: able to stand but walks with little ataxia/incoordination, 2: frequent swaying of the body but able to stand and walk with extreme incoordination, and 3: sternal recumbency/unable to stand [10].
The brain may be severely damaged as it may cause tremors, numbness, weakness, motor incoordination and convulsion," Paje said.
PT and OT will do the final So, incoordination I I still would want evaluation, but, um, want to think about him to use the call from a nursing mobility.
The first notable symptom is ataxia, or a gait imbalance, and limb incoordination.
Indeed, among the biological assays present in the Pharmacopoeia of the United Slates of America, Ninth Decennial Revision, of 1916 (pages 605-606) is a description of the assay used, in which a standard cannabis tincture is defined as producing incoordination in dogs when administered in a dose of 0.
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Corruptness of some officials and some incoordination used to interrupt the investment climate.
Infants with cardiac lesions should be assessed for other congenital abnormalities, for example tracheo-oesophageal fistula in VACTERL malformations, or swallowing incoordination in hypotonic Down syndrome infants.