incorporation


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incorporation:

see corporationcorporation,
in law, organization enjoying legal personality for the purpose of carrying on certain activities. Most corporations are businesses for profit; they are usually organized by three or more subscribers who raise capital for the corporate activities by selling shares
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incorporation

  1. the process in which the occupational and political organizations of the working class are accommodated within capitalist society.
  2. the argument that working-class consciousness has been shaped by the values and interests of other, dominant, classes.
The concepts have a place in the arguments about working-CLASS CONSCIOUSNESS and CLASS IMAGERY. The first usage, for example, is resonant of the arguments about a separate status group within the working class, especially in the 19th century – the LABOUR ARISTOCRACY. The second might be compared to discussions of HEGEMONY. Often the distinction between sense 1 and sense 2 is analytical; in practice, organization and consciousness are treated in an integrated, coextensive way.

Incorporation is one of many concepts which have been proposed to explain the predominantly reformist attitudes of the working classes of capitalist societies. It has been particularly influential in UK studies. The extension of citizenship, and voting and welfare rights, for example, and the establishment of‘respectable’, skilled, male trade unionism after 1850, have been seen both as the product of working-class struggle and as a means of institutionalizing, and thus containing the level of, industrial and political conflict. The Parliamentary Labour Party has also been a major element in the incorporation of the working class into existing structures. In the 1960s, proposed and actual trade-union legislation which attempted to give the state a continuous role in monitoring and regulating relations between employers and unions has been explained in terms of the incorporation of union militancy into stable and routine state structures (see also CORPORATISM). Between 1945 and 1979 the involvement of trade-union leaders in government committees, the acceptance of knighthoods, etc., by union leaders, and the willingness of unionists to cooperate in state-inspired initiatives like ACAS, have all been seen as examples of incorporation, i.e. as reducing militancy by channelling potential conflict, leadership and values into forms which can be accommodated by the status quo.

Incorporation

 

the combination into one morphological unit of two or more semantemes, which are mobile components with separate lexical meanings; the number and order of the components are determined in each instance by the content of the utterance, but the relations between them correspond to syntactic relations.

In Chukchi, for example, incorporation is used to express attributive relations (ga-ηran-tor-melgar-ma, “with two new guns”), adverbial relations (m∂t-winw∂-ekwet-∂rk∂n, “we are leaving secretly”), object relations (m∂t-kupre-g∂nrit-∂rk∂n, “we are protecting the nets”), and object relations expanded by attributives (m∂t-kupre-g∂nrit-∂rk∂n, “we are protecting the new nets”). Such an incorporative complex is neither a word (because it may be divided into lexicosemantic units) nor a combination of words (because it has morphological integrity). Incorporation occurs together with agglutination in languages; the two are closely interrelated and mutually conditioned.

REFERENCES

Stebnitskii, S. N. Iz istorii padezhnykh suffiksov v koriakskom i chukotskom iazykakh. Leningrad, 1941.
Skorik, P. Ia. “O sootnoshenii aggliutinatsii i inkorporatsii.” In thecollection Morfologicheskaia tipologiia i problema klassifikatsii iazykov. Moscow-Leningrad, 1965.

P. IA. SKORIK

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