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(ĭn'kyo͝onăb`yo͝olə), plural of


[Late Lat.,=cradle (books); i.e., books of the cradle days of printing], books printed in the 15th cent. The known incunabula represent about 40,000 editions. The books include products of more than 1,000 presses, including such famous printers as Gutenberg, Jenson, Caxton, and Aldus Manutius and give evidence as to the development of typography in its formative period. These books were generally large quarto size, bound in calf over boards of wood, decorated with red initials (rubricated) and ornamental borders, and carrying a colophoncolophon
[Gr.,=finishing stroke]. Before the use of printing in Western Europe a manuscript often ended with a statement about the author, the scribe, or the illuminator.
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 but no title page. Notable European collections of incunabula are in Paris, London (British Museum), Oxford (Bodleian Library), Vienna, Rome, Milan, Brussels, and The Hague. Notable American collections are in Washington, D.C. (Library of Congress), New York City (Morgan Library and others), Providence (John Carter Brown Library and Annmary Brown Memorial), San Marino, Calif. (Henry E. Huntington Library), and in the libraries of Harvard and Yale Univ. For an introduction to incunabula and a guide to further study, see Margaret B. Stillwell, Incunabula and Americana 1450–1800 (2d ed. 1961).



the earliest printed books, prepared from typesetting forms prior to 1501. In external appearance they resemble manuscript books. The type is most commonly Gothic; there are no indentations in incunabula. Their editions usually numbered from 100 to 300 copies. About 40,000 different editions were published; nearly one-half million copies are in existence. There are no incunabula of Russian origin, since the first printed books appeared in Russia only in the middle of the 16th century. The largest collections of incunabula in the USSR are in the Lenin State Library, the M. E. Saltykov-Shchedrin State Public Library, and the Library of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR.

References in periodicals archive ?
These borders and letters were re-used in a number of Soncino incunabular publications, particularly their editions of the Bible, modified to accommodate the requirements of the texts of each work, and the hare motif appears in books printed by Gershom Soncino in the sixteenth century.
Naples is not normally associated with Hebrew printing, but it was briefly, in the incunabular period, an important site of Hebrew presses.
Florence produced what is widely acclaimed as the greatest of the incunabular literary editiones principes, that of Homer.
devotional tracts produced in the incunabular period testifies to the
The reception of political texts in Italy in the incunabular period
Volume 1 deals with roman types and takes a running jump into its topic by discussing nine incunabular faces used in Paris into the early sixteenth century.
Mazal's goals are similar to those of Howard Jones (Printing the Classical Text [2004]), who provided an overview of the Greek and Latin classics during the incunabular period.
Tentler, 30-31, 37-38, attests to the popularity of the Manipulus curatorum, calculating that over ninety incunabular editions were published in Europe in the fifteenth century and that its popularity continued well into the sixteenth century.
The detection of spurious texts - a central topic in Monfasani's own criticism - is the subject of two essays: one tracing the fortune of pseudo-Dionysius the Areopagite in the quattrocento, and another on incunabular pseudepigrapha exposed by the Bergamasque humanist, Giovanni Calfurnio (d.