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(ĭn'kyo͝onăb`yo͝olə), plural of


[Late Lat.,=cradle (books); i.e., books of the cradle days of printing], books printed in the 15th cent. The known incunabula represent about 40,000 editions. The books include products of more than 1,000 presses, including such famous printers as Gutenberg, Jenson, Caxton, and Aldus Manutius and give evidence as to the development of typography in its formative period. These books were generally large quarto size, bound in calf over boards of wood, decorated with red initials (rubricated) and ornamental borders, and carrying a colophoncolophon
[Gr.,=finishing stroke]. Before the use of printing in Western Europe a manuscript often ended with a statement about the author, the scribe, or the illuminator.
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 but no title page. Notable European collections of incunabula are in Paris, London (British Museum), Oxford (Bodleian Library), Vienna, Rome, Milan, Brussels, and The Hague. Notable American collections are in Washington, D.C. (Library of Congress), New York City (Morgan Library and others), Providence (John Carter Brown Library and Annmary Brown Memorial), San Marino, Calif. (Henry E. Huntington Library), and in the libraries of Harvard and Yale Univ. For an introduction to incunabula and a guide to further study, see Margaret B. Stillwell, Incunabula and Americana 1450–1800 (2d ed. 1961).



the earliest printed books, prepared from typesetting forms prior to 1501. In external appearance they resemble manuscript books. The type is most commonly Gothic; there are no indentations in incunabula. Their editions usually numbered from 100 to 300 copies. About 40,000 different editions were published; nearly one-half million copies are in existence. There are no incunabula of Russian origin, since the first printed books appeared in Russia only in the middle of the 16th century. The largest collections of incunabula in the USSR are in the Lenin State Library, the M. E. Saltykov-Shchedrin State Public Library, and the Library of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR.

References in periodicals archive ?
I would suggest that the Latin original of this French book is an incunabulum printed many times by different printers in the Low Countries and France, and extant in numerous copies today.
In this respect, it is representative of a more advanced state of the art of printing: whereas the printer of the Latin incunabulum made these treatises one book by merely making them adjacent, imitating manuscript miscellanea, (27) the printers of the French and English books of comfort were more creative in their editorial work by adding a title and some paragraphs of reflection from an "auctour" to connect the treatises.
Bonk, "The Botanic Luminary, a Michigan Incunabulum," Michigan Alumnus Quarterly Review 67 (Feb.
The famous incunabulum of Pius II's De Europa, printed by Albrecht Kunne in Memmingen in around 1491;
Filetico's invectives, which Pincelli offers us in her edition based on a 1490 Roman incunabulum (lacking all quotations in Greek, which she conjecturally replaces), record a philological-exegetical polemic, mostly over a number of Virgilian and Homeric passages.
A third source takes the form of an incunabulum published in 1500 by Pierre Desrey de Troyes, who attributes the song to Raoul de Soissons.
To this end Ernstpeter Ruhe has produced his study and edition of an early thirteenth-century Lucidaire en vers and its derivative prose incunabulum, the Latin source being the widely disseminated Elucidarium attributed to Honorius Augustodunensis.
The incunabulum, a much reduced version of only the first half of the Lucidaire, focuses even more intensely on the eschatological lessons.