The index cases
were in contact with or resided on a farm where camels were kept.
Liquid TB culture samples from the index case
and the presumed source case were retrieved from the National Health Laboratory Service at Tygerberg Hospital and Green Point TB laboratories, respectively, for comparison.
We created the variable time (in days) using the symptom onset date from the index case
as the baseline date across the 810 case localities; that is, time ([X.sub.i], [Y.sub.i]).
Children exposed to index cases
with TB, particularly sputum smear-positive pulmonary TB (PTB), are at risk of infection and when infected, infants and young children (<5 years old) are at high risk of developing the disease [2,3].
In this study, we screened pediatric and adult family members of index cases
with brucellosis to detect unrecognized infected family members.
Household contacts: The individuals living in the same household or spending together many hours a day with the index case
in the same living shelter.
In women with a single index case
of HDP, the mortality rate compared to women with no HDP was threefold higher for diabetes, twofold higher for ischemic heart disease, and 85% higher for stroke.
In the index case
, medication was contnued during the course of behavior therapy for management of depressive symptoms and for the anxiety related to the choking phobia.
Among 15 Ebola outbreaks in remote areas of nine counties with index case
symptom onset dates during July 16--November 20, 2014, 12 investigations had complete data (Figure 1).
The two patients released from the Paynesville ETU are the father and younger brother of the presumed index case
, a 15-year-old boy named Nathan Gbotoe from a suburb of the capital Monrovia who died from the disease last week.
Patients that were not inhabitants of Denmark at the index case
or had migrated less than five years prior were also excluded, as were cases with chronic pancreatitis, pancreatic cancer, or polycystic ovary syndrome.
An index case
is defined as a previously diagnosed leprosy patient living in the same house and sharing the same kitchen (intra-familial), or is within the social circle of the newly diagnosed leprosy patient.