One limitation of our camera is that since it relies on indirect ophthalmoscopy
, there is a learning curve to its use.
Age related disease study 1 and 2 (AREDS 1 and AREDS 2) and other studies before OCT era were very important in terms of sorting out drusen based on their morphological characteristics on fundus photography or indirect ophthalmoscopy
and recognizing the ones that are more prone to progress to advanced stages of ARMD (atrophy or wet form).
From 6 October 2009 to 6 October 2010, participants identified by clinic staff as having a possible CMV-R diagnosis from routine retinal screening (indirect ophthalmoscopy
with fully dilated pupils) were referred to study representatives at the same clinic for assessment of eligibility, voluntary informed consent procedures and enrolment into the study.
They are best visualized on slit-lamp biomicroscopic ophthalmoscopy and/or indirect ophthalmoscopy
due to a larger field of view and stereopsis than on direct ophthalmoscopy.
They were submitted to slit-lamp biomicroscopy (Portable Slit Lamp/SL-14, Kowa), indirect ophthalmoscopy
(Heine - Omega 180, Heine), applanation tonometry (TonoPen XL, Mentor O & O), and fluorescein test (Fluorescein Strips, Ophthalmos Ltda).
It has been recommended that indirect ophthalmoscopy
or fluorescein angioscopy be used to detect these lesions and monitor their progression.
Screening by direct or indirect ophthalmoscopy
alone detected 65% of patients with sight-threatening retinopathy.
Their findings also were compared with an even more rigorous evaluation: comprehensive indirect ophthalmoscopy
and retinal diagrams performed by the ophthalmologist.
The limitations of direct ophthalmoscopy were overcome with the introduction of other forms of examination, such as slit lamp binocular indirect ophthalmoscopy
(often referred to as Volk assessment).
as well as slit lamp biomicroscopy was used to examine the fundus.
RRD was then examined using indirect ophthalmoscopy
for type, location and number of retinal breaks, status of macula, extent of RRD and retinal degenerations.
Conventional methods of accessing DME include contact and non-contact slit lamp biomicroscopy, indirect ophthalmoscopy
, fluorescein angiography and fundus stereo photography.