Identical Particles

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Identical Particles

 

particles that have identical physical properties, including mass, spin, electric charge, and other intrinsic characteristics, such as quantum numbers. For example, all electrons in the universe are regarded as identical. Identical particles conform to the principle of indistinguishability. The funda mental indistinguishability of identical particles is a purely quantum-mechanical concept.

References in periodicals archive ?
n] be such that 1/2 + [member of] equals the advantage of the adversary A (specified by Definition 3) to win the indistinguishability game (specified by Definition 2), and let the mutual information [F.
But nothing in the previous eq (2,1) allows this conclusion, rather it seems true exactly the contrary because [DELTA]x defining V has nothing to do with m therein delocalized: indeed, as above stated, the indistinguishability of identical particles is just due to the possibility that any particle could be found in a given range.
41) Because life in melodrama emerges in the indistinguishability between true and false, authentic and inauthentic, natural and artificial, it is solely medium, a substrate that is saturated and infiltrated from external influences, social conflicts, and emotional expectations--or as Raymond Deagan, the black gardener in Far from Fleaven, puts it: it is impossible "to see beyond the colour of things.
Let AI be an algorithm against the passive indistinguishability of symmetric encryption scheme Y, which has access to a left-or-right encuption oracle and returns a bit.
From this expression, it is possible to directly derive the generating function of general interval orders, or of interval orders with bounded size of indistinguishability classes, counted with respect to the same statistics.
Although many Jewish immigrants were committed to assimilating into American society, the act of assimilation was extremely complicated for Jews because of the indistinguishability of traditional Jewish cultural identity from Jewish religious faith.
The main point of chapter 2, entitled "Quantum Mechanics and Compassion," is to make an analogy between the indistinguishability of fundamental particles and the fact that all humans find themselves in a similar situation with regard to the purpose of life, in the desire for happiness.
154) See ERIC VON HIPPEL, DEMOCRATIZING INNOVATION (2005) (discussing the rise of the user-innovator); see also Aoki & Luvai, supra note 132, at 63 (describing the indistinguishability of users and developers of software and of plant genetic resources).
Where "awakening" demands conquering temporal indistinguishability, Eggers's "falling asleep" is the slumber of one whose past and present co-mingle incoherently.
Davis is inclined to see law as a type of theology also because he recognizes the large area of overlap between religion and law, which in the case of Hinduism amounts to an "essential indistinguishability.
Mamber argues that, "Scorsese was so successful in re-creating a TV style that once more the parody could lapse into indistinguishability from the backgrounded text.