Identical Particles

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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Identical Particles

 

particles that have identical physical properties, including mass, spin, electric charge, and other intrinsic characteristics, such as quantum numbers. For example, all electrons in the universe are regarded as identical. Identical particles conform to the principle of indistinguishability. The funda mental indistinguishability of identical particles is a purely quantum-mechanical concept.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
The first cavity merely focuses on collecting photons for high efficiency, while the second focuses on indistinguishability in a single channel.
A wins the game if b = b from the game above, we define the advantage of the adversary A in breaking the ciphertext indistinguishability as the probability that the adversary A wins.
Nevertheless, we hold that the externalist's argument would be sound (hence, the internalist's argument would not work) only if the indistinguishability appealed to in both arguments were a mere epistemic indistinguishability (EInd).
The subgroup indistinguishability assumption over group G' states that, for any PPT attackers, the advantage
Instead of computational indistinguishability, we consider secrecy of symmetric blind decryption based on the information observed by the parties.
Along these lines, the Chinese SAC has developed the concept of dual deterrence, which regards nuclear forces as capable of deterring both nuclear and conventional conflicts through reinforcing the already problematic dynamic of target indistinguishability. In other words, the SAC suggests a strategy that manufactures the eventuality of an inadvertent escalation through keeping both conventional and nuclear missiles under the same command.
(2) A metric for measuring the privacy disclosure risk of the spatial transformation methods (e.g., SHC) is proposed, namely, indistinguishability A.
However, the FitProbRate scheme only considers the event indistinguishability, in which the intertransmission times of the real event reports are indistinguishable from the desired distribution of fake transmissions, and ignores the interval indistinguishability, in which the intertransmission times of fake and real intervals are indistinguishable.
Although the primitive of encryption is mainly intended to keep confidentiality, when an encryption scheme achieves indistinguishability against adaptive chosen ciphertext attacks (IND-CCA2), the integrity of the ciphertexts is also granted.
where [VIEW.sub.i] ([w.sub.1], ..., [w.sub.n]) denotes the view of party i when running the GYM on the input ([w.sub.1], ..., [w.sub.n]), and [??] denotes the computational indistinguishability [6] of two probability ensembles [6].
On the one hand this entails obtaining the indistinguishability of identical particles as a corollary, regardless of which particle in a set could be that actually delocalized in a given uncertainty range; indeed no particle is specifically concerned "a priori".
The second chapter, "Reading Indistinction: Desire, Indistinguishability, and Metonymic Reading in Richard Crashaw's Religious Lyrics," focuses on the multiple relationships existing between God and his devotees.