induced drag

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induced drag

[in′düst ′drag]
(fluid mechanics)
That part of the drag caused by the downflow or downwash of the airstream passing over the wing of an aircraft, equal to the lift times the tangent of the induced angle of attack.

Induced Drag


in aerodynamics, the part of the aerodynamic resistance of a wing that is caused by the vortices whose axes originate on the wing and are directed downward against the flow. These so-called free vortices of the wing originate from the flow of air near the wingtips (Figure 1) from the region beneath the wing to the region above it. Above the wing, the airflow near the tip results in a flow directed from the tips toward the plane of symmetry; below the wing, from the plane of symmetry toward the tip. As a result, each particle in the wake, behind the wing, rotates about an axis that passes through the particle and is parallel to the velocity vector v of the oncoming flow; here the direction of rotation is opposite for the left and right halves of the wing (Figure 2). Thus, a continuous system of vortices that emanate from every point of the wing surface arises.

Figure 1. Diagram of the appearance of a tip vortex as a result of the flow of air from the area under the wing to the area above it

Figure 2. Cross section of the flow behind the wing in the plane perpendicular to v. The airflow at the wingtips causes a system of free vortices.

In the region between the end planes of the wing, free vortices induce velocities directed downward, and when the flow induced by the free vortices is superimposed on the oncoming flow, it directs it downward through the angle Δα (the flow rake angle). Since the lift of the wing should be perpendicular to the oncoming flow, it is deflected downward through the same angle a (Figure 3). Resolving this force into components along and perpendicular to v, we obtain the induced drag dQindand the lift dY. If the wing has infinitely large span, there is no induced drag.

Figure 3. Formation of induced drag as a result of the downwash of the flow by free vortices of the wing: vu is the velocity induced by the free vortices, and Δαis the flow rake angle


Prandtl, L. Gidroaeromekhanika, 2nd ed. Moscow, 1951. (Translated from German.)


induced drag

induced dragclick for a larger image
Relationship between induced drag and angle of attack for a given air speed.
That part of total drag caused by the same aerodynamic factors that produce lift. Total drag is the sum of the parasite drag and the induced drag. Induced drag is dependent on the airfoil shape, its lift coefficient (CL2), velocity (1/V2), weight (W2), and aspect ratio (1/A). For a given airfoil, induced drag is directly dependent on the angle of attack. The greater the angle of attack up to the critical angle, the greater the induced drag.
References in periodicals archive ?
These vortices produce what is called induced drag and are powerful enough to disrupt aircraft flying too closely to one anotherNone reason for the carefully monitored spacing between flights at takeoff and in the air.
Also being looked into is the installation of wing-tip winglets to reduce induced drag and thereby enable the aircraft to increase its operational ceiling, which will prove a significant advantage particularly for the AEW&C version mentioned above.
Wing drag was calculated as the sum of zero-lift drag, induced drag, wave drag, profile drag and interference drag.
Drag is commonly divided into 3 components: 1) profile drag, generated by friction; 2) induced drag, from the loss of kinetic energy in the wake, which is indissociable from the production of lift; and 3) the parasite drag, which is the drag of the body.
35-41) From a practical point of view, the U-shaped power curve means that flapping flight is more power-consuming at very low (where the induced drag is maximum) and very high (where the profile and parasite drags are maximum) flight speed.
Additionally, the team has used ANSYS CFX to model sail aerodynamics and study induced drag on appendages.
Also, the tips are tapered to reduce induced drag and power-robbing vortices.
2] at an altitude of 350 km has an induced drag acceleration of 5e-3 m/[s.
The variation of the induced drag acceleration upon the Space Shuttle can be also deduced from figure 2.