chemotherapy

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Related to induction chemotherapy: maintenance chemotherapy, consolidation chemotherapy

chemotherapy

(kē'mōthĕr`əpē), treatment of disease with chemicals or drugsdrugs,
substances used in medicine either externally or internally for curing, alleviating, or preventing a disease or deficiency. At the turn of the century only a few medically effective substances were widely used scientifically, among them ether, morphine, digitalis,
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. One chemotherapeutic approach is the development of selectively toxic substances, i.e., substances that can destroy or inhibit infecting organisms or, as in cancer, malignant tissue, but do not damage normal host tissue. In treating infection, selectively toxic agents may block a biochemical reaction necessary to the viability of the pathogen but not to that of the host; for example, penicillinpenicillin,
any of a group of chemically similar substances obtained from molds of the genus Penicillium that were the first antibiotic agents to be used successfully in the treatment of bacterial infections in humans.
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 blocks synthesis of bacterial cell walls, a component animal cells lack. Other chemotherapeutic substances differentially affect biochemical reactions in different tissues; thus antimetabolites such as methotrexate and CytoxanCytoxan
, trade name for the drug cyclophosphamide, used to inhibit growth of tumors and rapidly proliferating cells. It is used in the treatment of leukemia, Hodgkin's disease, and lymphosarcoma and other solid tumors.
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 are more toxic to rapidly proliferating cells such as those associated with cancer than to normal cells. Other drugs act in various ways to produce effects that initiate or enhance some normal body function; for instance, neostigmine blocks the action of an enzyme limiting transmission of nerve impulses and thereby acts as a nervous system stimulant. The usefulness of chemotherapeutic agents also depends on their pharmacological action, e.g., their rate of absorption, rapidity of action and rate of excretion, degree of storage in the body, effects of products of their metabolic breakdown, and potential for causing hypersensitivityhypersensitivity,
heightened response in a body tissue to an antigen or foreign substance. The body normally responds to an antigen by producing specific antibodies against it. The antibodies impart immunity for any later exposure to that antigen.
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 reactions. Some drugs are given prophylactically, to prevent infection, e.g., penicillin is given to rheumatic fever patients to prevent reinfection by the causative organism, the streptococcal bacterium.

Chemotherapy

 

the use of drugs to act on the causative agents of infectious and parasitic diseases and on tumor cells. The treatment of disease by chemical agents was first practiced early in the 20th century, after P. Ehrlich demonstrated the directed synthesis of agents capable of acting on microorganisms. Ehrlich used salvarsan (the first potent agent in chemotherapy) in 1909 and established the principal mechanisms of the specific action of chemical agents.

REFERENCES

Ehrlich, P. Materialy k ucheniiu o khimioterapii. St. Petersburg, 1911. (Translated from German.)
Khimioterapiia infektsionnykh boleznei (collection of articles). Moscow, 1958.
Strategiia khimioterapii. Moscow, 1960. (Translated from English.)
Larionov, L. F. Khimioterapiia zlokachestvennykh opukholei. Moscow, 1962.
Votchal, B. E. Ocherki klinicheskoi farmakologii, 2nd ed. Moscow, 1965.
Kassirskii, I. A., and Iu. L. Milevskaia. Ocherki sovremennoi klinicheskoi terapii, 2nd ed. Tashkent, 1970.

chemotherapy

[‚kē·mō′ther·ə·pē]
(medicine)
Administering chemical substances for treatment of disease, especially cancer and diseases caused by parasites.

chemotherapy

treatment of disease, esp cancer, by means of chemical agents
References in periodicals archive ?
Neutropenic fever developed after induction chemotherapy.
The researchers revealed that 81 per cent of the 36 T4 disease patients enrolled in the two studies responded to the induction chemotherapy, and many saw their tumours shrink completely.
They were treated with three cycles of induction chemotherapy with docetaxel, cisplatin, and 5-fluorouracil.
Induction chemotherapy followed by concomitant chemoradiation-induced regression of advanced cervical lymphadenopathy in head and neck cancer as a predictor of outcome.
Shanthi Marur, MD, The Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center at Johns Hopkins , "Phase I/II Study of Afatinib/Carboplatin/Paclitaxel Induction Chemotherapy Followed by Standard Chemoradiation in HPV Negative Locally Advanced Stage III/Iva/IVb HNSCC"
A 2007 analysis presented at the annual meeting of the American Society of Clinical Oncology found that HPV positivity conferred a 79% lower risk of death in the phase II ECOG (Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group) study of taxane-based induction chemotherapy followed by taxane-based concurrent chemoradiation in rescuable stage III-IV larynx and oropharyngeal cancer patients.
The Spanish Head and Neck Cancer Cooperative Group (TTCC) announced today that Induction Chemotherapy (IC) delivered prior to standard ChemoRadiotherapy (CRT), a treatment paradigm defined as sequential therapy, compared to upfront CRT alone, significantly prolonged Time-to-Treatment Failure (TTF) for patients with unresectable Locally Advanced Head and Neck Cancer (LAHNC).
COLORADO SPRINGS -- The early metabolic response to induction chemotherapy as assessed by fluorodeoxyglucose-PET just 2 weeks into the treatment of patients with locally advanced Barrett cancer reliably distinguishes those who will have low recurrence and favorable long-term survival post resection from those with a poor prognosis, Dr.
2,5,6) Randomized clinical trials of induction chemotherapy prior to radiation have failed to show that it is any more beneficial than radiation alone.
Validation studies for tests to predict success of induction chemotherapy for acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) are underway in collaboration with clinical investigators.
Patients in Group A will receive 2 cycles of induction chemotherapy in combination with weekly fixed doses of 8 mg/kg of HuMax-EGFr followed by 7 weekly 8 mg/kg doses of HuMax-EGFr in combination with radiotherapy.