chemotherapy

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Related to induction chemotherapy: maintenance chemotherapy, consolidation chemotherapy

chemotherapy

(kē'mōthĕr`əpē), treatment of disease with chemicals or drugsdrugs,
substances used in medicine either externally or internally for curing, alleviating, or preventing a disease or deficiency. At the turn of the century only a few medically effective substances were widely used scientifically, among them ether, morphine, digitalis,
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. One chemotherapeutic approach is the development of selectively toxic substances, i.e., substances that can destroy or inhibit infecting organisms or, as in cancer, malignant tissue, but do not damage normal host tissue. In treating infection, selectively toxic agents may block a biochemical reaction necessary to the viability of the pathogen but not to that of the host; for example, penicillinpenicillin,
any of a group of chemically similar substances obtained from molds of the genus Penicillium that were the first antibiotic agents to be used successfully in the treatment of bacterial infections in humans.
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 blocks synthesis of bacterial cell walls, a component animal cells lack. Other chemotherapeutic substances differentially affect biochemical reactions in different tissues; thus antimetabolites such as methotrexate and CytoxanCytoxan
, trade name for the drug cyclophosphamide, used to inhibit growth of tumors and rapidly proliferating cells. It is used in the treatment of leukemia, Hodgkin's disease, and lymphosarcoma and other solid tumors.
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 are more toxic to rapidly proliferating cells such as those associated with cancer than to normal cells. Other drugs act in various ways to produce effects that initiate or enhance some normal body function; for instance, neostigmine blocks the action of an enzyme limiting transmission of nerve impulses and thereby acts as a nervous system stimulant. The usefulness of chemotherapeutic agents also depends on their pharmacological action, e.g., their rate of absorption, rapidity of action and rate of excretion, degree of storage in the body, effects of products of their metabolic breakdown, and potential for causing hypersensitivityhypersensitivity,
heightened response in a body tissue to an antigen or foreign substance. The body normally responds to an antigen by producing specific antibodies against it. The antibodies impart immunity for any later exposure to that antigen.
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 reactions. Some drugs are given prophylactically, to prevent infection, e.g., penicillin is given to rheumatic fever patients to prevent reinfection by the causative organism, the streptococcal bacterium.

Chemotherapy

 

the use of drugs to act on the causative agents of infectious and parasitic diseases and on tumor cells. The treatment of disease by chemical agents was first practiced early in the 20th century, after P. Ehrlich demonstrated the directed synthesis of agents capable of acting on microorganisms. Ehrlich used salvarsan (the first potent agent in chemotherapy) in 1909 and established the principal mechanisms of the specific action of chemical agents.

REFERENCES

Ehrlich, P. Materialy k ucheniiu o khimioterapii. St. Petersburg, 1911. (Translated from German.)
Khimioterapiia infektsionnykh boleznei (collection of articles). Moscow, 1958.
Strategiia khimioterapii. Moscow, 1960. (Translated from English.)
Larionov, L. F. Khimioterapiia zlokachestvennykh opukholei. Moscow, 1962.
Votchal, B. E. Ocherki klinicheskoi farmakologii, 2nd ed. Moscow, 1965.
Kassirskii, I. A., and Iu. L. Milevskaia. Ocherki sovremennoi klinicheskoi terapii, 2nd ed. Tashkent, 1970.

chemotherapy

[‚kē·mō′ther·ə·pē]
(medicine)
Administering chemical substances for treatment of disease, especially cancer and diseases caused by parasites.

chemotherapy

treatment of disease, esp cancer, by means of chemical agents
References in periodicals archive ?
The treatment plan was to manage the disease through induction chemotherapy with TPF.
The efficacy of induction chemotherapy followed by CCRT in locally advanced NPC is controversial and has shown some conflicting results.
In fact, albeit in peripheral blood Tregs, a secondary response to inflammation caused by induction chemotherapy and to cytokine secretion has already been reported to justify the expansion of Tregs after treatment in CR patients [9].
If an initial tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) is not tolerated or if there is a lack of response to treatment, an alternate TKI or TKI plus acute leukemia-type induction chemotherapy should be followed through [13].
We conducted a retrospective analysis to compare attainment of goal serum posaconazole concentrations [greater than or equal to] 700 ng/ml in patients with AML or high-grade MDL undergoing induction chemotherapy receiving the oral suspension versus the delayed-release tablets.
Caption: FIGURE 1: MRI findings before and after induction chemotherapy. Before induction chemotherapy, the T2-weighted axial image (a) and contrast enhanced coronal images (c, e) revealed a left adrenal mass and multiple bilateral renal masses.
Crane et al., "Impact of induction chemotherapy and preoperative chemoradiotherapy on operative morbidity and mortality in patients with locoregional adenocarcinoma of the stomach or gastroesophageal junction," Annals of Surgical Oncology, vol.
Consolidative chemotherapy is utilized to eliminate residual leukemia cells and/or leukemic stem cells (LSC) after induction chemotherapy to reduce the chance of relapse.
Patients with acute leukemia are often brought to an inpatient hospital setting to receive induction chemotherapy. Patients seek support from family, friends, and health care professionals to help them cope during this complicated process (Meenaghan & Dowling, 2010).
The other was primarily treated with induction chemotherapy with a combination of docetaxel, cisplatin, and 5-fluorouracil followed by concurrent chemo- and radiotherapy.
(13,14,15) In this report we describe a patient with newly diagnosed AML that demonstrated no response to multiple sequential platelet transfusions that were given during the course of induction chemotherapy to prevent onset of bleeding complications.
These patients had previously received induction chemotherapy and achieved at least a partial response, followed by myeloablative therapy and autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT).