Thus, as Chertow (2000) argues, Industrial Ecology
can be seen as a more general term which encompasses the closely related analysis offered by firm level studies, Industrial Metabolism, and Industrial Symbiosis.
Boehland, Journal of Industrial Ecology
9:277287 (2005), http://mitpress.mit.edu/journals/JIEC/v9n1_2/jiec_9_1-2_277_0.pdf
Khait, why did you feel it was important to introduce your new class, Industrial Ecology
of Materials and Products?
In reality, industrial ecology
's incentives go far beyond resource protection or regulatory compliance.
1998 'Industrial ecology
and competitiveness: Strategic implications for the firm'.
This new field of "industrial ecology
" will apply ecological concepts to organization and operations in industry.
Research and industrial practice within industrial ecology
today still focuses much more on the industrialised North than the developing South (1, 2).
The ultimate goal of industrial ecology
is to reuse, repair, recover, remanufacture, or recycle products and by-products on a very large scale (Allenby and Richards 1994, Ayres and Ayres 1996, Frosch and Gallopolous 1989, Garner and Keoleian 1995, Graedel and Allenby 1995).
The core concept of Industrial Ecology
is to imitate in industrial matters the processes found in nature.
Global plastic production increased to 380 million metric tons (418 million tons) in 2015 from 2 million metric tons in 1950, according to research by Roland Geyer, a professor of industrial ecology
at the University of California, Santa Barbara, together with Jenna Jambeck of the University of Georgia and Kara Lavender Law of the Sea Education Association in Woods Hole, Massachusetts.