infant mortality


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infant mortality

(hardware)
It is common lore among hackers (and in the electronics industry at large) that the chances of sudden hardware failure drop off exponentially with a machine's time since first use (that is, until the relatively distant time at which enough mechanical wear in I/O devices and thermal-cycling stress in components has accumulated for the machine to start going senile). Up to half of all chip and wire failures happen within a new system's first few weeks; such failures are often referred to as "infant mortality" problems (or, occasionally, as "sudden infant death syndrome").

See bathtub curve, burn-in period.

Infant Mortality

 

the rate of death of live-borns during the first year of life. Infant mortality, with the birthrate and mortality, is a statistical index of natural population dynamics; it is expressed by the number of deceased infants per 100 or per 1,000 live-births. In the USSR a live-born is defined as an infant who has taken at least one breath. Infant mortality is basically a function of socioeconomic causes and shifts in one direction or another when these change. Thanks to measures of the system of maternity and childhood protection and to the system of antenatal protection of the fetus created by Soviet physicians, infant mortality in the USSR has sharply decreased (see Table 1).

According to UN data, infant mortality in the socialist countries in 1969 (per 1,000 births) was as follows: Bulgaria,

Table 1. Infant mortality in Russia and the USSR
 19131940195019601970
Deceased infants per 1,000 births269182813525

30.5; Hungary, 33.6; German Democratic Republic, 20.4; Poland, 34.3; Rumania, 54.9; and Czechoslovakia, 22.9. In contrast to the USSR, in certain capitalist countries infants who die before their births are recorded are considered to be stillborn; therefore, the indexes of infant morality in those countries do not correspond to reality and give lower figures.

References in periodicals archive ?
Many factors account for infant mortality in all societies but these factors vary between developed and less developed countries and between rural and urban centers within individual countries.
"Infant mortality is one of the best indicators for the health of the community," says Dr.
All these factors play a significant role in infant mortality but region-specific socio-economic and cultural factors should also be considered.
(2011) emphasized the role of maternal malnutrition linked to infant mortality. Both stress and malnutrition are variables that can be strongly influenced by the mother's economic status.
(AIR Pollution and Infant Mortality: Evidence from the Expansion of Natural Gas Infrastructure, January 2013.) Michael Ryan Shrewsbury
After the UK switched from toxic "town gas" to clean North Sea Gas, there was a rapid fall in infant death rates, which was noticed by ONS and others without any thought about what might have triggered such an event: "A " t national level in England and Wales, infant mortality rates fell rapidly from the early 1970s and into the 1980s."
Infant mortality is thus significantly related to extreme prematurity.
For decades, Cuba has touted low infant mortality rates as an indicator of the success of its socialist revolution.
Infant mortality represents the near-simultaneous arrival through birth and departure through death of human life.
The unexplained infant mortality rate also fell to its lowest level on record, dropping from 0.50 deaths per 1,000 live births in 2004 to 0.27 in 2017.
Driscoll, Ph.D., from the National Center for Health Statistics in Hyattsville, Maryland, present descriptive tabulations of data for infant deaths and infant mortality rates using the 2017 linked birth/infant death file.

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