infant mortality


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infant mortality

(hardware)
It is common lore among hackers (and in the electronics industry at large) that the chances of sudden hardware failure drop off exponentially with a machine's time since first use (that is, until the relatively distant time at which enough mechanical wear in I/O devices and thermal-cycling stress in components has accumulated for the machine to start going senile). Up to half of all chip and wire failures happen within a new system's first few weeks; such failures are often referred to as "infant mortality" problems (or, occasionally, as "sudden infant death syndrome").

See bathtub curve, burn-in period.

Infant Mortality

 

the rate of death of live-borns during the first year of life. Infant mortality, with the birthrate and mortality, is a statistical index of natural population dynamics; it is expressed by the number of deceased infants per 100 or per 1,000 live-births. In the USSR a live-born is defined as an infant who has taken at least one breath. Infant mortality is basically a function of socioeconomic causes and shifts in one direction or another when these change. Thanks to measures of the system of maternity and childhood protection and to the system of antenatal protection of the fetus created by Soviet physicians, infant mortality in the USSR has sharply decreased (see Table 1).

According to UN data, infant mortality in the socialist countries in 1969 (per 1,000 births) was as follows: Bulgaria,

Table 1. Infant mortality in Russia and the USSR
 19131940195019601970
Deceased infants per 1,000 births269182813525

30.5; Hungary, 33.6; German Democratic Republic, 20.4; Poland, 34.3; Rumania, 54.9; and Czechoslovakia, 22.9. In contrast to the USSR, in certain capitalist countries infants who die before their births are recorded are considered to be stillborn; therefore, the indexes of infant morality in those countries do not correspond to reality and give lower figures.

References in periodicals archive ?
The increase reflects similar changes in infant mortality across the country, with Liverpool's rise mimicked closely by other large UK cities.
But, officials said, due to sustained efforts by Jhpiego in collaboration with USAID and the Sindh government, maternal and infant mortality rates have been brought down to a large extent.
I don't feel reassured that our infant mortality rate is that much better than others - it's just right at the national average - so I wouldn't say it's really good.
An econometric analysis of the statistical relationship between carbon dioxide emissions and infant mortality in South Asia.
Speaking at a press conference at the health directorate here, the minister said, "The infant mortality rate in Rajasthan was 49 per 1,000 live births which has come down to 41 per 1000 live births in 2016.
For reasons not fully understood, disparities in infant mortality by race continue to persist.
Interventions to further reduce the rate of preterm birth among black infants appear the most promising option for reducing black infant mortality and the absolute inequality between black and white infants," the study stated.
The combination of accurate death figures and undercounted births inflated infant mortality statistics.
Objectives: To determine and map the spatial nature of infant mortality in Punjab, at district level and model fit spatial autocorrelation.
In 2011, the former Health Protection Agency promised a study into a possible link between incinerators and infant mortality, but that study remains unpublished and also unreported in the West Midlands' media.
The rates of infant mortality have been significantly reduced in the developed world mainly due to improvements in basic health care and technological advances in the medical field.
Project Coordinator for HCC Sukkur, Firdous said Expanded Programme for Immunization was proving useful in controlling infant mortality rate in the region.

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