infarction


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infarction

infarction, blockage of blood circulation to a localized area or organ of the body resulting in tissue death. Infarctions commonly occur in the spleen, kidney, lungs, brain, and heart. The acute emergency known as myocardial infarction or heart attack is usually caused by a blockage in one of the coronary arteries that supply blood to the heart muscle. The blockage typically occurs when a blood clot (see thrombosis) lodges in an area already narrowed by arteriosclerosis; other causes are vasospasms in the arterial walls or viral infection of the heart. Symptoms include a crushing pain in the chest radiated to either arm (more commonly the left arm), the jaw, and the neck. The pain may be experienced, particularly in women, as pain in the shoulder or stomach, instead of the chest, and in some cases there are no symptoms at all. The seriousness of the infarction is dependent upon the amount of heart muscle affected, how long the area is deprived of blood, and whether it affects the natural pacemaker of the heart, setting off arrhythmias such as ventricular fibrillation. Death of heart muscle tissue and heart failure may result (see congestive heart failure); damage to other vital organs, including the brain, may occur if the heart is unable to pump necessary oxygen and blood to them. Confirmation of myocardial infarction is made by electrocardiography and measurement of elevations of white blood cells and certain enzymes. Treatment of acute myocardial infarction may include first aid in the form of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), an emergency balloon angioplasty, or the administration of beta-blockers and thrombolytic drugs (clot-dissolving drugs), such as tissue plasminogen activator. The healing of an infarction occurs through replacement of the dead tissue by scar tissue.

See also coronary artery disease.

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infarction

[in′färk·shən]
(medicine)
Condition or process leading to the development of an infarct.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
References in periodicals archive ?
Another basic study in the diagnosis of myocardial infarction is a 12-lead ECG test, which allows to assess the leading rhythm, its frequency and the overload of atria and chambers.
Patients who were admitted to our hospital within the first three days after the onset of symptoms; who were diagnosed as having acute MCA infarction with anamnesis, clinical findings, and radiological examinations; and who were intubated and had invasive MV support in the emergency service, stroke unit, NICU or before the surgical/interventional endovascular treatment were included in the study.
Diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction was made by two out of three criteria:
This study was based on analysis of a prospective database "Register of Acute Myocardial Infarction," Tomsk (Russia).
The results obtained by our group suggest, however, that mitochondrial genome mutations can also be associated with myocardial infarction. We have previously demonstrated that mtDNA mutations were present in cells from atherosclerotic aortas and arteries [10-14].
One hundred and thirty-two patients with acute cerebral infarction who were admitted to our hospital from August 2016 to August 2017 were selected and divided into an observation group and a control group according to random number table.
Ability of minor elevations of troponins I and T to predict benefit from an early invasive strategy in patients with unstable angina and non-ST elevation myocardial infarction: results from a randomized trial.
Therefore, this population-based, observational, retrospective cohort study included patients who received antiplatelet therapy before hospitalization to delineate the association between prior antiplatelet therapy and subsequent risk of ischemic stroke and myocardial infarction as well as the risk of major bleeding in patients with IE.
Patients who met the following criteria were diagnosed with venous infarction. First, the intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or early postoperative computed tomography (CT) scan (within 24 h after surgery) showed no hemorrhage around the lead.