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protection,practice of regulating imports and exports with the purpose of shielding domestic industries from foreign competition. To accomplish that end, certain imports may be excluded entirely, import quotas may be established, or bounties paid on certain exports. One method is to impose duties on imports (see tarifftariff,
tax on imported and, more rarely, exported goods. It is also called a customs duty. Tariffs may be distinguished from other taxes in that their predominant purpose is not financial but economic—not to increase a nation's revenue but to protect domestic industries
..... Click the link for more information. ), increasing the price of the imported article, and making it less attractive to the consumer than the cheaper, domestically produced article. In the 20th cent. Britain used a system of protection known first as imperial preference and later as Commonwealth preference, designed to promote close economic relations between Britain and former colonial dependencies. The United States, however, followed the policy of protecting "infant industries" from the beginning of its national history. Since bounties on exports are forbidden by the Constitution, the protective tariff was the chief instrument of such policy. A brief attempt was made in 1913 to lower duties, but after World War I tariff rates were raised to the highest point in U.S. history. Although American industries had grown to a position of great strength, it was still held that they needed protection from the cheaper labor and lower costs of production in many foreign countries.
To promote freer trade during the Great Depression, President Franklin Delano Roosevelt received authorization in 1934 to negotiate reciprocal trade agreementsreciprocal trade agreement,
international commercial treaty in which two or more nations grant equally advantageous trade concessions to each other. It usually refers to treaties dealing with tariffs.
..... Click the link for more information. , reducing tariff rates on a far-reaching basis through the use of the most-favored-nation clausemost-favored-nation clause
(MFN), provision in a commercial treaty binding the signatories to extend trading benefits equal to those accorded any third state. The clause ensures equal commercial opportunities, especially concerning import duties and freedom of investment.
..... Click the link for more information. . After World War II, the United States played a leading role in the formation (1948) of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) and in negotiating the several rounds of multilateral tariff reductions, most recently (1986) the Uruguay round, which led to the formation of the World Trade OrganizationWorld Trade Organization
(WTO), international organization established in 1995 as a result of the final round of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) negotiations, called the Uruguay Round.
..... Click the link for more information. . Other important steps in the movement toward freer trade and away from protection include the formation of the European Economic CommunityEuropean Economic Community
(EEC), organization established (1958) by a treaty signed in 1957 by Belgium, France, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, and West Germany (now Germany); it was known informally as the Common Market.
..... Click the link for more information. (or Common Market; now part of European UnionEuropean Union
(EU), name given since the ratification (Nov., 1993) of the Treaty of European Union, or Maastricht Treaty, to the European Community (EC), an economic and political confederation of European nations, and other organizations (with the same member nations)
..... Click the link for more information. ) in 1957 and the European Free Trade AssociationEuropean Free Trade Association
(EFTA), customs union and trading bloc; its current members are Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway, and Switzerland. EFTA was established in 1960 by Austria, Denmark, Great Britain, Norway, Portugal, Sweden, and Switzerland.
..... Click the link for more information. in 1959. In 1992, the United States, Canada, and Mexico negotiated the North American Free Trade AgreementNorth American Free Trade Agreement
(NAFTA), accord establishing a free-trade zone in North America; it was signed in 1992 by Canada, Mexico, and the United States and took effect on Jan. 1, 1994.
..... Click the link for more information. (NAFTA), which created the world's largest trading zone.
Although the United States is no longer a high-tariff nation, it still has a number of restrictive import quotas that provide a definite limit on the quantity of a given commodity that can be imported from another nation. Japan, one of the world's major industrial nations, also has many import quotas. Such quotas, in addition to being more certain methods of protection than tariffs, can also be used to favor certain nations over others.
See W. M. Corden, Protection, Growth and Trade (1985); J. N. Bhagwati, Protectionism (1988).
access controlThe management of admission to system and network resources. It grants authenticated users access to specific resources based on company policies and the permission level assigned to the user or user group. Access control often includes authentication, which proves the identity of the user or client machine attempting to log in. See network access control, authentication, access control list and information security.
antivirus programSoftware that searches for viruses. Also known as a "virus scanner." As new viruses are discovered by the antivirus vendor, their binary patterns and behaviors are added to a database that is downloaded periodically to the user's antivirus program via the Web. Popular antivirus programs are Norton, McAfee, Sophos, Bitdefender, AVG and Kaspersky. Windows Defender is Microsoft's own antivirus software that comes with Windows, starting with Windows 8.
Antivirus programs are used on all Windows machines, but most Mac users do not install them. However, as more Macs are acquired, the Mac has slowly but surely become a target of attacks, and Mac antivirus programs are being installed at a more rapid rate than in the past. See virus, quarantine, disinfect and scareware.
Multiple Detection Approaches
Early antivirus scanning matched the binary signature (pattern) of executable files against a database of known malware signatures before they were allowed to run. This "scanning" process was vastly speeded up by doing a one-time scan of all the executables in the computer and also when a new one is installed. If the executable is virus free, a checksum (hash) of its binary pattern is computed and stored in a checksum database. The next time the executable is launched by the user, its checksum is recomputed and compared with the virus-free checksum. If they match, the file was not adulterated.
Because malware may generate a unique signature each time it is downloaded to an unsuspecting user, antivirus programs also use behavior detection, which looks for suspicious activities such as copying and deleting files when launched (see behavior detection). See Symantec, McAfee, Sophos, Bitdefender, AVG, checksum, virus, polymorphic virus and Reputation-based Security.
|Scan and Create a Checksum (Hash)|
|This is commonly used to speed up antivirus scanning, because computing and comparing an executable's checksum is considerably faster than analyzing the file each time it is loaded.|
endpoint security(1) An umbrella term for security in the user's machine (client machine).
(2) Diagnosing the status of a user's computer or mobile device when it connects to the network. Also called, "network access protection" (NAP), the security software is deployed in both the client and server side. It determines if the operating system, Web browser and other applications are up-to-date. It also checks the status of the antivirus, firewall and other security components. If a device is deemed non-compliant, it is either updated, or access to the network is declined. See network access control, lock down and vSentry.
firewallThe primary method for keeping a computer secure from intruders. A firewall allows or blocks traffic into and out of a private network or the user's computer. Firewalls are widely used to give users secure access to the Internet as well as to separate a company's public Web server from its internal network. Firewalls are also used to keep internal network segments secure; for example, the accounting network might be vulnerable to snooping from within the enterprise.
In the home, a personal firewall typically comes with or is installed in the user's computer (see Windows Firewall). Personal firewalls may also detect outbound traffic to guard against spyware, which could be sending your surfing habits to a website. They alert you when software makes an outbound request for the first time (see spyware).
In the organization, a firewall can be a stand-alone machine (see firewall appliance) or software in a router or server. It can be as simple as a single router that filters out unwanted packets, or it may comprise a combination of routers and servers each performing some type of firewall processing. For more about the various firewall techniques, see firewall methods.
|An Excellent Resource|
|O'Reilly's "Building Internet Firewalls, 2nd Edition" by Zwicky, Cooper and Chapman is one of the best books written on Internet and Web security. It covers a huge range of firewall and related topics and should be a "must have" for anyone interested in the subject. (O'Reilly & Associates, Inc., 2000)|
information securityThe protection of data against unauthorized access. Programs and data can be secured by issuing passwords and digital certificates to authorized users. However, passwords only validate that a correct number has been entered, not that it is the actual person. Digital certificates and biometric techniques (fingerprints, eyes, voice, etc.) provide a more secure method (see authentication). After a user has been authenticated, sensitive data can be encrypted to prevent eavesdropping (see cryptography).
Authorized Users Can Be the Most Dangerous
Although precautions can be taken to authenticate users, it is much more difficult to determine if an authorized employee is doing something malicious. Someone may have valid access to an account for updating, but determining whether phony numbers are being entered requires a great deal more processing. The bottom line is that effective security measures are always a balance between technology and personnel management. See Parkerian hexad, information assurance, security scan, security audit, audit trail, NCSC, ICSA, access control, share-level security, user-level security and social engineering.
|Facial recognition is one of the best ways to authenticate a person. This TrueFace system from Miros uses neural network technology to distinguish a face with different appearances, such as with and without glasses and changing hair styles. (Image courtesy of Miros, Inc.)|