infrared detectors

infrared detectors

Devices sensitive to infrared radiation in the region from 0.8 μm to about 400 μm. Present-day detectors are nearly all operated at cryogenic temperatures: 77 K using liquid nitrogen or 4 K or lower by using liquid helium. They are made from very pure semiconductor material, such as silicon or germanium, either as 1 mm cubes or smaller or as square arrays of tiny pixels (as with CCDs). For either form, electrical connections to the semiconductor allow monitoring of the electrical signal that is generated when the device is struck by infrared photons. Different conversion mechanisms from incident photon to electrical signal are involved, depending upon the detector (see bolometer; photoconductive detector; photovoltaic detector).

‘Doping’ the detector material with a particular impurity determines the wavelength region in which the detector will have its best response; impurities used include indium, gallium, copper, arsenic, antimony, beryllium, and boron. For example, a gallium-doped germanium detector (denoted, using chemical symbols, as Ge:Ga) has a useful wavelength region of 40–180 μm while an arsenic-doped silicon detector (denoted Si:As) has a useful range of 8–14 μm. A detector denoted InSb is made of indium antimonide, which is a compound rather than a crystalline mixture. Detectors of Ge:Ga can have their response limit extended to 205 μm by slightly squashing or stressing the material of the detector. Infrared detectors are susceptible to hits from cosmic ray particles, and work is progressing on detectors that are less vulnerable to this phenomenon.

References in periodicals archive ?
Optoelectronics / detector technologies / infrared detectors. (nirfir)
It has recently made a [euro]150m investment over five years in the Nano2022 project to develop the next generation of infrared detectors. These will be designed to address trends in autonomous systems for smart buildings (workspace management, energy savings), road safety and in-cabin comfort of vehicles.
Fact.MR has announced the addition of the "Pyro Electric Infrared Detectors Market Forecast, Trend Analysis & Competition Tracking - Global Market Insights 2018-2026"report to their offering.
Solar cells, tube amplifiers, gyroscopes and infrared detectors are among essential space technologies that are lacking suppliers in the US, meaning the US is reliant on foreign suppliers for these critical technologies, according to a recent Defense Department report.
Summary: The report commences with an executive summary that highlights the regional forecasts on the global infrared detectors market.
Sofradir and subsidiary ULIS will invest 150 million [euro] in the next five years in France's Nano 2022 initiative, to support the development of next-generation infrared detectors. The announcement follows the European Commission's approval in December of the Important Project of Common European Interest (IPCEI), a joint project by France, Germany, Italy and the UK to give 1.75 billion [euro] ($2 billion) in public support for research and innovation in microelectronics.
Trapping so much light means that warm objects beneath the cloaking material become almost completely invisible to infrared detectors.
Antimonide-Based Infrared Detectors: A New Perspective
A team of "hidden camera officials" with radio-frequency and infrared detectors will be dispatched to search for the cameras and help remove them.
Boreman, "Antenna-coupled infrared detectors for imaging applications," IEEE Journal on Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics, vol.
This time around, they implanted four infrared detectors in the rats' brains.
Then infrared detectors could target the location almost immediately, thus catching the supernova before the brightening begins.