Anesthetic

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anaesthetic

(US), anesthetic
a substance that causes anaesthesia
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Anesthetic

 

a substance that acts selectively on the central nervous system and induces a state of anesthesia.

The meaning of the term “anesthetic” has changed in the course of the development of pharmacology. Anesthetics used to include nervous-system depressants and stimulants, as well as many substances that only indirectly affect the nervous system. From the beginning of anesthetic practice, stimulants, depressants, and various indirectly acting substances were the principal anesthetics. Neurotropic agents with different types of action, for example, analgesic, somnifacient, and tranquilizing, are grouped separately. Application of the term “anesthetic” to denote substances of plant or synthetic origin that are narcotics—morphine, oxycodone, Trimeperidin. for instance—was determined by convention, as was the use of the term “narcotic” to convey the sense of “anesthetic.” The main requirements of an anesthetic are that it have broad action, that is, a significant range between the effective (anesthetic) and toxic doses; that it not produce complications; and that it have no aftereffects.

Anesthetics are classified as either inhalation or noninhalation, depending on the method of administration. Inhalation anesthetics are divided into volatile anesthetics, which include ethers, chloroform, trichloroethylene, halothane, and ethyl chloride, and into gaseous anesthetics, such as nitrous oxide and cyclopropane. Noninhalation anesthetics, for example, hexobarbital, sodium thiopental, and propanilid, are administered intravenously. Narcolan is introduced by rectum.

Often, a combination of anesthetics is used to weaken or completely compensate for any negative properties that one of the ingredients might have when used alone. Surgical procedures that involve certain physiological functions can require a combination of an anesthetic with other types of agents, such as muscle relaxants, antihistamines, cholinergic and adrenergic blocking agents, ganglioplegic agents, neuroleptics, and tranquilizers. A new kind of anesthesia has been developed, neuroleptoanalgesia, in which anesthesia is brought about using neuroleptics and analgesics without the use of anesthetics.

REFERENCE

Zakusov, V. V. Farmakologiia nervnoi sistemy. Leningrad, 1953.

V. V. PARIN

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.

What does it mean when you dream about an anesthetic?

To dream of being anaesthetized may represent the residue of a memory (e.g., from a medical operation). It could also reflect a desire to be relieved of some painful experience—physical, mental, or emotional.

The Dream Encyclopedia, Second Edition © 2009 Visible Ink Press®. All rights reserved.

anesthetic

[¦an·əs¦thed·ik]
(pharmacology)
A drug, such as ether, that produces loss of sensibility.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
References in periodicals archive ?
The group that received inhalation anesthetics had greater blood loss despite the fact that they had approximately twice the frequency of use of doses of methylergonovine than the group receiving IV anesthetics (Figure 2).
Mutti, "Solid-phase microextraction gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric method for the determination of inhalation anesthetics in urine," Journal of Chromatography B, vol.
[2] The availability of less soluble inhalation anesthetics such as sevoflurane and desflurane has made us rethink about the selection of volatile anesthetics for outpatient surgical procedures.
The medical products business had annual sales of more than $9 billion in 2013, with a portfolio of intravenous (IV) solutions and nutritional therapies, drug delivery systems and administration sets, premixed and other injectable drugs, as well as inhalation anesthetics, hospital-based biosurgery products, and a portfolio of products and services to treat end-stage renal disease, which was recently expanded with the Gambro acquisition.
Total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA) has particular application in combat medicine because it accomplishes the goal of general anesthesia while it decreases the equipment necessary to provide inhalation anesthetics. The focus of this article is to review historical milestones in combat anesthesia, develop the basic concepts of TIVA, explore some of the purported benefits, particularly in combat trauma, and briefly describe some future trends in intravenous anesthesia.