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1. something that is prepared, esp a medicinal formulation
2. esp in a boarding school
a. homework
b. the period reserved for this
3. Music
a. the anticipation of a dissonance so that the note producing it in one chord is first heard in the preceding chord as a consonance
b. a note so employed
4. the preliminary prayers at Mass or divine service



the making of animal and plant specimens, including fossils, for study.

To prepare organisms for anatomical study, animals are dissected, and plants are dismembered. The separate organs or organ systems are placed in fixative fluids. For making total preparations, animal organs are set right and stained, the circulatory and respiratory systems are filled with slightly jelling mastics or plastics, and, sometimes, sections are made of certain organs. If necessary, the organs are attached to a supporting plate. For plant preparation, longitudinal, radial, tangential, transverse, and superficial sections of organs are made. Skeletons and chitinous and limestone carapaces, as well as the conducting systems of plants, are freed from the soft tissues by maceration or by boiling in special solutions, such as caustic alkalies. Mammals, birds, and reptiles can be stuffed (taxidermy), and, in some cases, the skin coverings are dried and mounted. A special form of plant preparation is the mounting of an herbarium.

Microscopic preparation of objects (entire microorganisms, separate organs, organ parts, tissues, cells, intracellular formations, molecular and submolecular structures) involves a very exact procedure. A wide range of fixatives, stains, and reagents for dehydration, clarification, impregnation, and differentiated separation of the objects under examination is used. The making of temporary or permanent specimens involves enclosing the specially treated object between a microscope slide and a cover glass (seeMICROTECHNIQUE).

The preparation of fossil objects involves freeing them from their enclosing rock. The cleaned objects are then impregnated with various fixing substances and covered with special lacquers. Imprints of organisms on an enclosing rock (usually including fragments of organs) are fixed and preserved on parts of the rock.


Prokhorov, M. G. Instruktsiia dlia raskopok, preparovki i montirovki iskopaemykh pozvonochnykh, 2nd ed. Leningrad, 1931.
Komarov, V. L. Prakticheskii kurs anatomii rastenii, 8th ed. Moscow-Leningrad, 1941.
Romeis, B. Mikroskopicheskaia tekhnika. Moscow, 1954. (Translated from German.)
Dal’, K. K. Posobie dlia rabotnikov anatomo-zoologicheskikh muzeev i kafedr biologii. Dushanbe, 1965.
Zaslavskii, M. A. Izgotovlenie chuchel, muliazhei i modelei zhivotnykh. Obshchaia taksidermiia. Leningrad, 1968.
Kukhtina, Zh. M. Rukovodstvo k prakticheskim zaniatiiam po tsitologii. Moscow, 1971.


References in periodicals archive ?
The 2010 ALA/AASL Standards for Initial Preparation of School Librarians reflect the concepts found in AASL's Empowering Learners: Guidelines for School Library Programs and Standards for the 21st Century Learner.
Written by Houston and Bates, who both participated in the adventure, this book describes the climb from the initial preparation to the return to the base camp while including all of the details about the accident during the descent that jeopardized the safety of the 10 climbers involved.
The National Middle School Association initial preparation rubrics call for candidates who:
The findings support the assertion that an introductory course in special education combined with a clinical experience can be successful in the initial preparation of elementary teachers for inclusion.
After the initial preparation, the eager gardeners took over having committed to provide labour, maintenance, and whatever annuals were necessary, after begging perennials from gardening friends.
Parents should be involved in the initial preparation work as a sharp knife is required it can be a messy job.
During a shipper's initial preparation of the required import and export documentation prior to the cargo being loaded and transported to a port, the shipper's declaration is prepared and submitted to CBP for review.
The final product, California Senate Bill 2042 (SB 2042), consisted of a set of professional standards, the California Standards for the Teaching Profession (CSTP), multiple paths to credentialing, a two-tiered system of initial preparation followed by induction, and a teacher performance assessment system of accountability.
It has been a great pleasure working with Professor Mollard and Ms Emmanuelle Sauboua, also of the INRA at the rime of initial preparation of this special issue.
Amongst the topics covered are the initial application for the provisional licence, the initial preparation for the actual test, the test itself and more advanced techniques covering areas as diverse as motorway driving and advanced driving tips.
Among the topics covered are the initial application for the provisional licence, the initial preparation for the actual test, the test itself and more complicated techniques covering areas as diverse as motorway driving and advanced driving tips.
They also found no statistically significant difference between behaviors thought to underlie effective teaching, their perceptions of initial preparation, or teaching competence after teaching three years.

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