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see nervous systemnervous system,
network of specialized tissue that controls actions and reactions of the body and its adjustment to the environment. Virtually all members of the animal kingdom have at least a rudimentary nervous system.
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The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia™ Copyright © 2013, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved.
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



the cordlike association of nerve tissues that links the brain and nerve ganglia by innervation to the other organs and tissues of the body.

A nerve primarily consists of nerve fibers. In vertebrates many nerves converge to form a bundle that is surrounded by a connective tissue sheath, the perineurium; the thin interstitial layers of connective tissue that separate the individual fibers deep within the bundle constitute the endoneurium. Finally, the entire nerve trunk, comprising several bundles, is covered by an additional sheath, the epineurium.

Nerves can be sensory (also called afferent or centripetal) or motor (also called efferent or centrifugal). Some nerves, for example, those innervating the skeletal muscles, mainly include myelinated, or medullated, fibers; others, for example, the sympathetic nerves, largely consist of unmyelinated, or unmedullated, fibers.

In reptiles, birds, mammals, and man 12 pairs of cranial nerves branch from the brain: the olfactory (cranial nerve I), the optic (cranial nerve II), the oculomotor (cranial nerve III), the trochlear (cranial nerve IV), the trigeminal (cranial nerve V), the abducent (cranial nerve VI), the facial (cranial nerve VII), the acoustic (cranial nerve VIII), the glossopharyngeal (cranial nerve IX), the vagus (cranial nerve X), the accessory (cranial nerve XI), and the hypoglossal (cranial nerve XII). Only the first ten pairs are present in fish and amphibians.

In man there are 31 pairs of spinal nerves: eight cervical, 12 thoracic, five lumbar, five sacral, and one coccygeal. Each pair innervates the effectors and receptors of a certain part of the body. The spinal nerves branch from the spinal cord into two roots—the posterior, or sensory, and the anterior, or motor. Both roots then combine to form a common trunk that consists of both sensory and motor fibers.

Several adjacent nerves can be combined into nerve plexuses, where an exchange of fibers between different nerves can take place. Three large plexuses are distinguished: the cervical, the brachial, and the lumbosacral. Each nerve plexus is the origin of several pairs of nerves; for example, the sacral portion of the lumbosacral plexus gives rise to the sciatic nerves.

Nerves that originate in the ganglia, trunks, and plexuses of the autonomic nervous system constitute a specific group. The optic nerve is remarkable for its large number of fibers; there are more than 1 million in the human optic nerve. Usually, however, there are 103 -104 fibers in a nerve. In invertebrates certain nerves are known to consist of only a few fibers. The peripheral nervous system in animals and man consists of aggregations of nerves.


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.


A bundle of nerve fibers or processes held together by connective tissue.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.


Any one of the ribs of a groined vault, but esp. a rib which forms one of the sides of a compartment of the groining.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Architecture and Construction. Copyright © 2003 by McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.


1. any of the cordlike bundles of fibres that conduct sensory or motor impulses between the brain or spinal cord and another part of the body
2. a large vein in a leaf
3. any of the veins of an insect's wing
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
All the three never fiber markers, namely PGP 9.5, TH, and VIP, were found to surround the eccrine sweat glands, indicating human eccrine sweat glands are innervated by both sympathetic adrenergic and sympathetic cholinergic nerves, which are consistent with previous studies.[1],[3],[10] However, until now, it was unknown whether the two components of eccrine sweat glands are equally innervated by sympathetic nerve fibers.
The findings of AF Dixon (17) in 1896 that the DSN had cutaneous branches that innervated the skin in the mid-scapular area suggests a possible direct link of NP and DSN neuropathy.
The patient should be informed that following the neurolysis procedure, there will be numbness or tingling at the region innervated by the nerve.
These variants are innervated either by anterior interosseous nerve or directly from the median nerve (1, 2, 3).
The nasal dorsum is innervated by the supra- and infratrochlear nerves, which are blocked at its location just medial to the eyebrow.
Seventy-three noninnervated flaps showed comparable results with 52 innervated flaps for the lower lip reconstruction at the time of evaluation, a minimum of 6 months after the reconstruction.
Routine EDX screening test for ulnar neuropathy at elbow consists of recording an ulnar innervated hand muscle (ADM), with stimulation at elbow and 5cm above the elbow.
Muscles innervated by the lower sciatic nerve control plantar flexion and dorsiflexion as well as inversion and eversion of the talocrural (ankle) joint and are therefore critical for standing balance and walking functions.
Like other invertebrate motor systems, the buccal musculature of Helisoma is innervated by both motor and modulatory neurons.
The genital area is innervated by branches from the sacral plexus, which include parasympathetic nerve fibres.
Leaves are innervated by branching veins, and the small, cup-shaped flower has five petals.