Innervation

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innervation

[‚in·ər′vā·shən]
(anatomy)
The distribution of nerves to a part.
(physiology)
The amount of nerve stimulation received by a part.

Innervation

 

the supply of nerves to organs and tissues, which provides for their communication with the central nervous system (CNS).

A distinction is made between afferent (centripetal) and efferent (centrifugal) innervation. Signals about the condition of an organ and the processes taking place in it are perceived by sensitive nerve endings (receptors) and transmitted to the CNS over the centripetal fibers. The responses that regulate the functioning of the organs are transmitted along the centrifugal nerves, enabling the CNS to keep regulating and altering the activity of organs and tissues in accordance with the body’s requirements. The function-regulating role of the CNS is different for different organs. In some organs (for example, in skeletal muscle or salivary gland) the signals from the CNS determine their entire activity, so that complete disconnection from the CNS, or denervation, results in atrophy of the organ involved. Some organs (for example, the heart and intestine) can act under the influence of impulses originating in the organs themselves. In these cases, denervation does not result in atrophy but only limits, to some extent, the adaptive reactions, which persist both because of humoral regulation and because of the presence of a nervous system within the organ.

G. N. KOSITSKH and I. N. D’IAKOVA

References in periodicals archive ?
Changes of rat's benign hyperplasia prostate glandular epithelium cells after interfering cholinergic innervations by drug (in Chinese).
Median-ulnar nerve communications and anomalous innervation of the intrinsic hand muscles: an electrophysiological study.
A comparative study of the vagal innervation of the stomach in man and the ferret.
Differential expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and neurotrophin 3 mRNA in lingual papillae and taste buds indicates roles in gustatory and somatosensory innervation.
The rationale is that in a low-intensity task that relies disproportionately on different parts of the muscle to perform, the subject will require more motor units situated only in this portion while needing fewer motor units that share innervation with other portions.
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Sherrington's laws applies not only to the eye but also to other muscle pairings throughout the body, and states that any innervation to a muscle to contract will be accompanied by an equal inhibitory input to the direct antagonist to relax.
The innervation of the muscles that derived from the mandibular arch and the location of the motoneurons (located in the mandibular nerve) reflect their segmental origins and are reliable criteria for homologizing mandibular muscles among the craniates (Song & Boord).
About 20 appendices give information on manual muscle testing, orthopedic special tests, and peripheral nerve innervations, as well as symbols and measures, acronyms and abbreviations, pharmacology, muscles, and pain assessment.
The ileocecal valve syndrome is a collection of symptoms linked with gastrointestinal distress which has parasympathetic reflex responses associated with vagal nerve innervations.
During dissection, care was taken not to injure the blood vessels and innervations in the infra- and suprahyoid muscles.