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madder, common name for the Rubiaceae, a family of chiefly tropical and subtropical trees, shrubs, and herbs, especially abundant in N South America. The family is important economically for several tropical crops, e.g., coffee, quinine, and ipecac, and for many ornamentals, e.g., the gardenia, bluet, madder, bedstraw, and partridgeberry. Coffee beans come from several species of the genus Coffea, bushes and trees of the Old World tropics; many are African. The medicine quinine comes from the bark of evergreen trees (cinchona) native to the Andes. The drug ipecac, or ipecacuanha, is obtained from the dried rhizomes and roots of Psychotria (Cephaëlis) ipecacuanha and related species, shrubby herbaceous perennials of tropical forests in Central and South America. Madder (Rubia tinctorum), also called turkey red, is an Old World dye plant native to S Europe. The herb's long fleshy root was the principal source of various fast, brilliant red dye pigments until artificial production of alizarin, the color principle of madder. The plant was known to ancient peoples—madder-dyed cloth has been found in Egyptian mummy cases—and was cultivated in the East for centuries and in Europe from the late Middle Ages. Madder and the two major sources of blue pigment, indigo and woad, were the most important dye plants until the development of synthetic aniline dyes in the 19th cent. Gardenias [for Scottish-American naturalist Alexander Garden] are evergreen shrubs and trees (genus Gardenia) of the Old World subtropics. Most of the cultivated types are varieties of G. jasminoides, called also Cape jasmine but unrelated to the true jasmine. The heavily fragrant and showy blossoms make gardenias popular corsage and greenhouse plants. Several native North American wildflowers belong to the madder family. The bedstraws (species of Galium, an almost cosmopolitan weed) were formerly used for mattress filling because of their pleasing odor. The partridgeberry, or squawberry (Mitchella repens), is a small, trailing evergreen plant with scarlet berrylike fruits sometimes used medicinally or for winter decorations. The bluet (Houstonia caerulea) is a favorite spring flower of open woods and grassy meadows in the Northeast. Called also innocence and quaker-ladies, it has a distinctive tiny four-petaled blue flower. Other species of Houstonia, as well as the unrelated cornflower, are also called bluets. Phylogenetically, the madder family is closely related to the honeysuckle family. The madder family is classified in the division Magnoliophyta, class Magnoliopsida, order Rubiales.

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Inquisitiveness (See CURIOSITY.)
Insanity (See MADNESS.)
Adam and Eve
naked in Eden; knew no shame. [O.T.: Genesis 2:25]
Sanskrit name means sinless. [Hindu Myth.: Benét, 50]
Babes in the Wood
innocent children are lost in the wood and die. [Br. Lit.: Babes in the Wood, Walsh Classical, 42]
basin and ewer
Pilate’s guiltlessness signified by washing of hands. [N.T.: Matthew 27:24]
Budd, Billy
friendly sailor; held in warm affection by crew. [Am. Lit.: Billy Budd]
free of evil. [Br. Lit.: “Christabel” in Walsh Modern, 95]
with fairy godmother’s aid, poor maligned girl wins prince’s heart. [Fr. Fairy Tale: Cinderella]
believes marriage to Pinkerton is real. [Ital. Opera: Puccini, Madama Butterfly, Westerman, 357]
symbol of blamelessness. [Flower Symbolism: Flora Symbolica, 173; Kunz, 328]
Delano, Amasa
naive, goodhearted captain rescues captive captain from mutineers. [Am. Lit.: Benito Cereno]
blamelessness martyred through slander. [Br. Lit.: Othello]
Hallyard, St
. Norwegian martyred in defense of guiltless woman. [Christian Hagiog.: Attwater, 165]
has instinct for goodness. [Children’s Lit.: Heidi]
chaste wife unjustly suspected by Postumus of unfaithfulness. [Br. Drama: Shakespeare Cymbeline]
attribute of young woman; personification of guiltlessness. [Art: Hall, 161]
female saloonkeeper in mining town; never been kissed. [Ital. Opera: Puccini, Girl of the Golden West, Westerman, 360–361]
in marrying former mistress of enemy. [Ger. Opera: d’Albert, Tief land, Westerman, 371–374]
Pinch, Tom
guileless, with unbounded goodness of heart. [Br. Lit.: Martin Chuzzlewit]
beautiful jungle girl, lover of birds and animals, knows neither evil nor guile. [Br. Lit.: Hudson Green Mansions in Magill I, 333]
unjustly condemned for adultery; later acquitted. [Apocrypha: Daniel and Susanna]
Allusions—Cultural, Literary, Biblical, and Historical: A Thematic Dictionary. Copyright 2008 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in classic literature ?
Several strange facts combined against her, which might have staggered anyone who had not such proof of her innocence as I had.
But I do not pretend that my protestations should acquit me; I rest my innocence on a plain and simple explanation of the facts which have been adduced against me, and I hope the character I have always borne will incline my judges to a favourable interpretation where any circumstance appears doubtful or suspicious."
Godfrey Ablewhite was in this house not two hours since, and that his entire innocence of all concern in the disappearance of the Moonstone was proclaimed by Miss Verinder herself, in the strongest language I ever heard used by a young lady in my life.
I evaded all her moves; but when at last I decided to give her a hearing, I confess it needed all my cynicism to resist her air of innocence, of pathetic devotion.
I am not fit to be a member of your household, I am not worthy to live with the honest people who serve you, while my innocence is in doubt.
"He denies that it is possible for you or for anybody to believe in his innocence," the Major replied.
The servant could now easily prove his innocence; and the king, to make amends for the wrong, allowed him to ask a favour, and promised him the best place in the court that he could wish for.
When the Tin Woodman sat down no one applauded him, for his arguments had not been very convincing and few believed that he had proved Eureka's innocence. As for the Jury, the members whispered to each other for a few minutes and then they appointed the Hungry Tiger their spokesman.