Inoculation


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inoculation,

in medicine, introduction of a preparation into the tissues or fluids of the body for the purpose of preventing or curing certain diseases. The preparation is usually a weakened culture of the agent causing the disease, as in vaccinationvaccination,
means of producing immunity against pathogens, such as viruses and bacteria, by the introduction of live, killed, or altered antigens that stimulate the body to produce antibodies against more dangerous forms.
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 against smallpox; however, it may also be composed of antitoxinsantitoxin,
any of a group of antibodies formed in the body as a response to the introduction of poisonous products, or toxins. By introducing small amounts of a specific toxin into the healthy body, it is possible to stimulate the production of antitoxin so that the body's
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, which provide immunity themselves, or toxoidstoxoid,
protein toxin treated by heat or chemicals so that its poisonous property is destroyed but its capacity to stimulate the formation of toxin antibodies, or antitoxins, remains.
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, which are proteins that stimulate the body to produce antitoxins (see immunityimmunity,
ability of an organism to resist disease by identifying and destroying foreign substances or organisms. Although all animals have some immune capabilities, little is known about nonmammalian immunity.
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). Various forms of inoculation were used from ancient times in China, India, and Persia, but it remained for the English physician Edward JennerJenner, Edward,
1749–1823, English physician; pupil of John Hunter. His invaluable experiments beginning in 1796 with the vaccination of eight-year-old James Phipps proved that cowpox provided immunity against smallpox.
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 in the late 18th cent. to demonstrate its feasibility to the Western world. The term inoculation is used also to refer to the introduction of certain substances into plant tissues or to the placement of microorganisms into culture media (for experimental or diagnostic purposes) or into the soil.

Inoculation

The process of introducing a microorganism or suspension of microorganism into a culture medium. The medium may be (1) a solution of nutrients required by the organism or a solution of nutrients plus agar; (2) a cell suspension (tissue culture); (3) embryonated egg culture; or (4) animals, for example, rat, mouse, guinea pig, hamster, monkey, birds, or human being. When animals are used, the purpose usually is the activation of the immunological defenses against the organism. This is a form of vaccination, and quite often the two terms are used interchangeably. Both constitute a means of producing an artificial but active immunity against specific organisms, although the length of time given by such protection may vary widely with different organisms. See Immunity, Vaccination

Inoculation

 

the introduction of live microorganisms, infective material, serum, or other substances into plant, animal, or human tissues, as well as into cultural media. The inoculation of a healthy person with a live causative agent of a disease (for example, vaccinia virus) produces a mild form of the disease and thereby develops immunity. Inoculation may be therapeutic (injection of specific serum for therapeutic purposes) or prophylactic (injection of immune serum or vaccine as a means of protection against a particular disease).


Inoculation

 

(of metals and alloys), the introduction of inoculants into molten metals and alloys. The addition of small quantities of inoculants sharply affects crystallization properties and, for example, leads to the formation of spherical or refined structural components and facilitates their even distribution throughout the principal phase. As a result of inoculation, alloys acquire a finer structure, which improves their mechanical properties. Inoculation is used in the production of cast iron and silumin ingots.

Inoculation is distinct from microalloying, in which an increase in the quantity of additive leads to ordinary alloying (without a clear boundary between the effects produced). In inoculation, an increase in the quantity of additive may be impossible (because of volatility or low solubility), inefficient, or harmful (overinoculation).

The phenomenon of liquid inoculation is sometimes observed upon the mixing of two different melts. An effect similar to inoculation may be produced by some types of physical treatment of molten metal—for example, in ultrasonic treatment and the application of an electromagnetic field.

REFERENCE

Levi, L. I., and S. K. Kantenik. Liteinye splavy. Moscow, 1967.

A. A. ZHUKOV

inoculation

[i‚näk·yə′lā·shən]
(biology)
Introduction of a disease agent into an animal or plant to produce a mild form of disease and render the individual immune.
(metallurgy)
Treating a molten material with another material before casting in order to nucleate crystals.
(microbiology)
Introduction of microorganisms onto or into a culture medium.
References in periodicals archive ?
The inoculation of the peanut by arbuscular fungi and isolated Bradyrhizobium induced an increase of yield both in pods and weight of their fresh material (Fig 5, 6).
However, there is a low risk of inoculation where a legume has been used frequently and the soil is not hostile to rhizobia.
On station trial carried out in Benin (unpublished data) showed that phosphorous application at the dose of 50 kg P ha-1 and inoculation with Bradyrhizobium strain FA3 is affordable and could be appropriate for soybean production.
By tracking the so-called "hit rate" of the inoculant, the inoTECH system gives the operator increased control during inoculation.
Inoculation (tattoo) leprosy: a report of 31 cases.
It was only a matter of time before a preventable disease such as TB would blight our society and, unless the relevant authorities heed the resolution of Coun Deirdre Alden's health scrutiny committee for the reintroduction of inoculations, we could see a problem of epidemic proportions.
Inoculation is a cognitive response model that exploits how active thinking can result in behavioral change.
If he hadnat been tireless in his pursuit of inoculation, if he hadnat convinced at least one doctor to try it, our history might be very different.
A new newspaper, the New England Courant, edited by James Franklin, Benjamin Franklin's older brother, blasted the idea of inoculation.
Earlier, Liang Xiaofeng, director of the immunization center under the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, had said the inoculations are safe, but the possibility of adverse reactions cannot be ruled out.
The sterile zone D (ZS-D) is designed for automatic transfer and transport of the sacks from zone C (ZS-C) to zone E (ZS-E) and includes an automatic pallet transfer system that moves the pallets from the cooling area to the temporary storage posts, where the inoculation process will take place.