Inoculation


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inoculation,

in medicine, introduction of a preparation into the tissues or fluids of the body for the purpose of preventing or curing certain diseases. The preparation is usually a weakened culture of the agent causing the disease, as in vaccinationvaccination,
means of producing immunity against pathogens, such as viruses and bacteria, by the introduction of live, killed, or altered antigens that stimulate the body to produce antibodies against more dangerous forms.
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 against smallpox; however, it may also be composed of antitoxinsantitoxin,
any of a group of antibodies formed in the body as a response to the introduction of poisonous products, or toxins. By introducing small amounts of a specific toxin into the healthy body, it is possible to stimulate the production of antitoxin so that the body's
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, which provide immunity themselves, or toxoidstoxoid,
protein toxin treated by heat or chemicals so that its poisonous property is destroyed but its capacity to stimulate the formation of toxin antibodies, or antitoxins, remains.
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, which are proteins that stimulate the body to produce antitoxins (see immunityimmunity,
ability of an organism to resist disease by identifying and destroying foreign substances or organisms. Although all animals have some immune capabilities, little is known about nonmammalian immunity.
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). Various forms of inoculation were used from ancient times in China, India, and Persia, but it remained for the English physician Edward JennerJenner, Edward,
1749–1823, English physician; pupil of John Hunter. His invaluable experiments beginning in 1796 with the vaccination of eight-year-old James Phipps proved that cowpox provided immunity against smallpox.
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 in the late 18th cent. to demonstrate its feasibility to the Western world. The term inoculation is used also to refer to the introduction of certain substances into plant tissues or to the placement of microorganisms into culture media (for experimental or diagnostic purposes) or into the soil.

Inoculation

The process of introducing a microorganism or suspension of microorganism into a culture medium. The medium may be (1) a solution of nutrients required by the organism or a solution of nutrients plus agar; (2) a cell suspension (tissue culture); (3) embryonated egg culture; or (4) animals, for example, rat, mouse, guinea pig, hamster, monkey, birds, or human being. When animals are used, the purpose usually is the activation of the immunological defenses against the organism. This is a form of vaccination, and quite often the two terms are used interchangeably. Both constitute a means of producing an artificial but active immunity against specific organisms, although the length of time given by such protection may vary widely with different organisms. See Immunity, Vaccination

Inoculation

 

the introduction of live microorganisms, infective material, serum, or other substances into plant, animal, or human tissues, as well as into cultural media. The inoculation of a healthy person with a live causative agent of a disease (for example, vaccinia virus) produces a mild form of the disease and thereby develops immunity. Inoculation may be therapeutic (injection of specific serum for therapeutic purposes) or prophylactic (injection of immune serum or vaccine as a means of protection against a particular disease).


Inoculation

 

(of metals and alloys), the introduction of inoculants into molten metals and alloys. The addition of small quantities of inoculants sharply affects crystallization properties and, for example, leads to the formation of spherical or refined structural components and facilitates their even distribution throughout the principal phase. As a result of inoculation, alloys acquire a finer structure, which improves their mechanical properties. Inoculation is used in the production of cast iron and silumin ingots.

Inoculation is distinct from microalloying, in which an increase in the quantity of additive leads to ordinary alloying (without a clear boundary between the effects produced). In inoculation, an increase in the quantity of additive may be impossible (because of volatility or low solubility), inefficient, or harmful (overinoculation).

The phenomenon of liquid inoculation is sometimes observed upon the mixing of two different melts. An effect similar to inoculation may be produced by some types of physical treatment of molten metal—for example, in ultrasonic treatment and the application of an electromagnetic field.

REFERENCE

Levi, L. I., and S. K. Kantenik. Liteinye splavy. Moscow, 1967.

A. A. ZHUKOV

inoculation

[i‚näk·yə′lā·shən]
(biology)
Introduction of a disease agent into an animal or plant to produce a mild form of disease and render the individual immune.
(metallurgy)
Treating a molten material with another material before casting in order to nucleate crystals.
(microbiology)
Introduction of microorganisms onto or into a culture medium.
References in periodicals archive ?
The inoculation of corn seeds with the bacterium Azospirillum brasilense strains Ab-V5 Ab-V6 (guarantee of 2 x [10.sup.8] m[L.sup.-1] CFU--colony forming unit) was carried out at the dose of 200 mL of inoculant (liquid) per hectare of sown seeds, with the aid of a clean mixer for inoculant incorporation in the seeds.
Once inoculations for first year students have been completed in 2019, schools will seek to vaccinate those in other years who need protection.
This study was designed to investigate the impacts of seed inoculation on forage and seed yields and forage quality of berseem clover.
A number of parents in Davao City resisted the recent mass inoculation against measles, for fear of Dengvaxia-like deaths of children.
The experiment consisted of a complete factorial arrangement, in which factor A was the use or not of inoculation (Coastcross-1 not inoculated, Coastcross-1 inoculated only at planting, and Coastcross-1 inoculated at planting and in the second year) and factor B was the different fertilization rates (0, 100 and 200 kg [ha.sup.-1] [year.sup.-1] N).
bassiana inhibition by actinomycetes was also observed in treatments (where) in which the fungicide was added to the soil one hour before (r = -0.49914, p [less than or equal to] 0.05) (Figure 1B) or 48h after (r = -0.51566, p [less than or equal to] 0.05) (Figure 1C) inoculation with the entomopathogen (Table 3).
Due to the combination of inoculation and urea fertilization factors, the experiment consisted in an orthogonal design with eight treatments: 1) F.
Plant tissue samples were collected for assessments of enzyme activity peaks in three stages (0 h, 48 h and 96 h after inoculation), retrieving one leaf from each treatment and replication, which were packed in plastic bags, identified, frozen and stored in a freezer at -16[degrees]C to assess the peroxidase, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and [beta]-1,3 glucanases.
The trays containing 3 months old seedlings were left in the nursery for two weeks to stabilize and adapt to the nursery environment before transferring them to polythene bags (polybags) 30 cm x 38 cm with a thickness of 500 gauge (0.125 mm) (Halimah et al., 2010) containing 3 kg of sterile soil mixture (3:2:1 v/v/v topsoil: peat: sand) prior to pre-inoculation with the BCAs and artificial inoculation with UPM13 (G.
On the surface of the seedlings 24 hours after inoculation straight and slightly curved macroconidia of 36 [micro]m length, blunt apical cell, and barely notched basal cell were observed.
However, the cultivation of soybean in Brazil relies on the inoculation with elite strains of Bradyrhizobiumjaponicum, B.