training

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training

(1) Teaching the details of a subject. With regard to software, training provides instruction for each command and function in an application. Contrast with education.

(2) In communications, the process by which two modems determine the correct protocols and transmission speeds to use.

(3) In voice recognition systems, the recording of the user's voice in order to provide samples and patterns for recognizing that voice.

Training

 

in fruit growing and ornamental horticulture, imparting a certain shape to the crowns of trees. The crowns of fruit trees and shrubs are made light-permeable, sturdy, and compact to ensure high yields and convenience in managing, cultivation, and harvesting (by mechanized means). Crown shapes are classified as high-trunk (taller than 150 cm), average trunk (70–100 cm), low-trunk (50–60 cm), shrub (shorter than 40 cm), and trunkless (berry bushes and, sometimes, plum, cherry, and certain spreading forms). Depending on the arrangement of the branches, the crowns may be free-growing (improved-natural) or artificial.

Most common in fruit-growing is the free-growing crown, in the formation of which the natural growth of the tree or shrub is only slightly disrupted. Free-growing crowns include the whorled-layered crown whose principal skeletal branches are arranged in whorls of five in two or three layers, and the thinned-layered crown whose skeletal branches are arranged in layers of three, with solitary branches between them. Artificial crown shapes are used in topiary work and in ornamental horticulture. In beautifying city streets trees are usually trained to have a high trunk (up to 2 m) and a spherical crown. In parks trees are often trained in the form of geometric shapes, vases, and animals. Training is usually begun in plant nurseries and completed at the permanent planting site. The principal method of tree training is pruning.

REFERENCES

See references under PRUNING FRUIT AND BERRY PLANTS.

B. P. ANZIN

References in periodicals archive ?
Caption: FIGURE 2: Graphics of inspiratory peaks in the serial weekly measurement of TIE index from the first until the last measurement along inspiratory muscle training program.
Low load inspiratory muscle training increases diaphragmatic fiber dimensions in rats.
Inspiratory muscle training and endurance: a central metabolic control perspective.
Lago, "Inspiratory muscle training in patients with diabetic autonomic neuropathy: a randomized clinical trial," Clinical Autonomic Research: Official Journal of the Clinical Autonomic Research Society, vol.
The failure to significantly observe oxygen desaturation and changes in hematological variables suggests that the ETM works more like an inspiratory muscle training device than a simulator of altitude.
The effects of inspiratory muscle training in patients with cystic fibrosis.
Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of inspiratory muscle training on core function compared to a typical core training program.
While inspiratory muscle training (IMT) has been shown to improve performance in endurance sports, Turner's study sought to shed light on how IMT does this.
This report describes the use of specific inspiratory muscle training to enhance weaning from mechanical ventilation in a patient who had failed conventional weaning strategies A 79-year-old man remained ventilator-dependent 17 days following laparotomy.
Training: muscle soreness, overtraining, inspiratory muscle training, vibration, forced repetitions, weight-training for endurance.
Research evidence suggests that inspiratory muscle training increases maximal inspiratory pressure and reduces MV and weaning time; [2] therefore, future surveys should include this aspect of respiratory muscle training in the ICU.

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