training

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training

(1) Teaching the details of a subject. With regard to software, training provides instruction for each command and function in an application. Contrast with education.

(2) In communications, the process by which two modems determine the correct protocols and transmission speeds to use.

(3) In voice recognition systems, the recording of the user's voice in order to provide samples and patterns for recognizing that voice.

Training

 

in fruit growing and ornamental horticulture, imparting a certain shape to the crowns of trees. The crowns of fruit trees and shrubs are made light-permeable, sturdy, and compact to ensure high yields and convenience in managing, cultivation, and harvesting (by mechanized means). Crown shapes are classified as high-trunk (taller than 150 cm), average trunk (70–100 cm), low-trunk (50–60 cm), shrub (shorter than 40 cm), and trunkless (berry bushes and, sometimes, plum, cherry, and certain spreading forms). Depending on the arrangement of the branches, the crowns may be free-growing (improved-natural) or artificial.

Most common in fruit-growing is the free-growing crown, in the formation of which the natural growth of the tree or shrub is only slightly disrupted. Free-growing crowns include the whorled-layered crown whose principal skeletal branches are arranged in whorls of five in two or three layers, and the thinned-layered crown whose skeletal branches are arranged in layers of three, with solitary branches between them. Artificial crown shapes are used in topiary work and in ornamental horticulture. In beautifying city streets trees are usually trained to have a high trunk (up to 2 m) and a spherical crown. In parks trees are often trained in the form of geometric shapes, vases, and animals. Training is usually begun in plant nurseries and completed at the permanent planting site. The principal method of tree training is pruning.

REFERENCES

See references under PRUNING FRUIT AND BERRY PLANTS.

B. P. ANZIN

References in periodicals archive ?
Inspiratory muscle training in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: Structural adaptation and physiologic outcomes.
To our knowledge, only one study has evaluated the effect of inspiratory muscle training (IMT) "alone" and showed improvements in swimming (Kilding et al.
Fregonezi GA, Resqueti VR, Guell R, Pradas J, Casan P Effects of 8-week, interval-based inspiratory muscle training and breathing retraining in patients with generalized myasthenia gravis.
Impact of inspiratory muscle training in patients with COPD: what is the evidence?
Moodie LH, Reeve JC and Elkins M (2011) Inspiratory muscle training increases inspiratory muscle strength in patients weaning from mechanical ventilation: a systematic review.
While inspiratory muscle training (IMT) has been shown to improve performance in endurance sports, Turner's study sought to shed light on how IMT does this.
2004), there is a large body of research on inspiratory muscle training through respiratory maneuvers (e.
This report describes the use of specific inspiratory muscle training to enhance weaning from mechanical ventilation in a patient who had failed conventional weaning strategies A 79-year-old man remained ventilator-dependent 17 days following laparotomy.
Following hospitalization and treatment for her 21st episode of bacterial pneumonia, the patient was discharged home in August 2004, and a physical therapy treatment referral from her pulmonologist was received to provide inspiratory muscle training.
Dyspnoea in COPD--Can inspiratory muscle training help?
Therefore, it is essential for clinicians to be able to assess the presence of muscle damage when implementing an inspiratory muscle training program, by using outcome measures that are minimally invasive.
4) Therefore, interventions that improve ventilation, such as inspiratory muscle training (IMT), may have the potential to reduce dyspnea and improve exercise tolerance.

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