A similar approximation for detecting the onset of static liquefaction is to characterize the instability line for a specific type of sand.
The aspects previously mentioned could indicate that the instability line across the origin of coordinates.
On the other hand, the instability line can be easily constructed with the data from figure 1 by drawing a vertical cross section at a given void ratio (i.
Numerical and experimental evidence show that the well known instability line proposed by Vaid and Chern (1985) and Lade (1994) is not a straight line, but a curve in the p - q stress space which can be projected from the origin for Changi sand.
To elaborate the classification of the weather types for the rhythm analysis, the classes of atmospheric systems identified by Monteiro (1973) were used, as follows: 1) Frontal Systems--Polar Atlantic Front (FPA), Reflex Polar Front (FPR), Polar Atlantic Front in Dissipation (DIS), Occlude Polar Atlantic Front (OCL), Repercussion of Polar Atlantic Front (REP), Stationary Polar Atlantic Front (EST), and Warm Front; 2) Individualised Systems--Tropical Instability Line and Atlantic Intertropical Convergence Zone; and 3) Air Masses--Polar Atlantic mass (mPA), Old Polar mass (mPV), Continentalized Old Polar mass (PVC), Tropical Atlantic mass (mTA), Continentalized Tropical Atlantic mass (TAC), Tropical Continental mass (mTC), and Equatorial Continental mass (mEQ).
Zavattini (1990) synthesized the system according to this classification: 1) South Currents = mPA + mPV/PVC + FPA/OCL/DIS/EST + FPR; 2) East Currents = mTA + TAC + Tropical Instability Line + Warm Front + REP: 3) North Current = mEQ; and 4) West Current = mTC.
In general, the critical cyanobacterial blooms during the first trimester of 2009 were associated mainly with a mTA (80%), compared to a mTC (20%); interestingly, all of the blooms occurred after a disturbance in the water column caused by a Tropical Instability Line (20%), an EST (20%) and a FPA (60%).