The instantaneous value
of efficiency is determined by the ratio of the instantaneous values
of useful power on the motor shaft [p.sub.IM] to the consumed active power [p.sub.1].
where [p.sub.cyl](t) is the instantaneous pressure inside the pump cylinder, [E.sub.s] is the isentropic modulus of elasticity of the fluid, [[rho].sub.cyl] is the fluid density at pressure [p.sub.cyl], [V.sub.cyl]([theta]) is the instantaneous value
of the pumping chamber volume ([theta] = [[theta].sub.0] + [omega]t, where [omega] = 2[pi]n), expressed as a function of the pump piston lift , and [m.sub.leak] is the leakage flow-rate.
We suppose that the inductance is not saturated; therefore, it generates a sinusoidal magnetic field whose instantaneous value
is given by
(iii) The methods using the instantaneous value
The outer loop controls the RMS of the voltage, while the inner loop controls the instantaneous value
of the voltage.
However, in the proposed algorithms, the covariance matrix is initially set to (10), but it gets updated through multiple iterations so that it approaches its instantaneous value
(3), which is capable of providing an improved overall detection performance.
The real part of the Space vector is equal to the instantaneous value
of the direct-axis stator current component, [i.sub.s[alpha]] and whose Imaginary part is equal to the quadrature-axis stator current component, [i.sub.s[beta]].
It should be emphasized that the new registered seismic shock changes an instantaneous value
of the module.
where: [u.sub.e] - instantaneous value
of the excitation voltage, [R.sub.2] - winding resistance, [R.sub.b] - burden resistance, i'1 - instantaneous primary current transformed to the secondary (i'1= [i.sub.1]/N), [i.sub.[mu]] - instantaneous magnetization current, [L.sub.2] - winding inductance, and [L.sub.B] - burden inductance.
An example of instantaneous value
of spring force S acting on the peg and dry friction force T acting between the peg and drum's hole during a single cycle of uplifting of the peg is shown in Fig.
As DC voltage is always greater than the instantaneous value
of AC line voltage, all the diodes are turned off, and the capacitor discharges via the short circuit.
According to Maxwell law, the instantaneous value
of normal electromagnetic force per unit area can be expressed as