Furthermore, Bishop (2007) while describing the dark side of instrumental rationality
approach in every human-action state that "the personal, social and physical worlds are reduced to mere raw materials for an individual's manipulation in order to achieve some pre-selected purposes".
According to Nussbaum (2010), modern society prepares its young people for future economic prosperity: "It is an education designed to achieve an income rather than human development," but beyond a Manichean dichotomy, the author points out that, "it is the replacement of an integral rationality by an instrumental rationality
." In other words, the means rather than the ends are prioritized, as a result of which institutions gradually dehumanize higher education.
Besides, their practices are constantly guided by instrumental rationality
and are efficient, since many of them have made a living, raised their families, and expanded their businesses through the art of catira.
They featured precious little of the executive-centered "instrumental rationality
" propounded in Progressive essays and speeches.
The values of dominance, prestige, achievement and power, belonging to self-enhancement, are interpreted by the authors as values that privilege individual interests focused on ends, performance, success, and results, representing instrumental rationality
Two thin, uniform cylindrical beams propping up shelves quote the parsimony of modernist construction, while the sculpture's performative proportions and rainbow papier-mache exterior undermine the characteristic instrumental rationality
of the movement.
Kolodny argues this is due to the principle of instrumental rationality
, according to which if one intends an end one is committed to intending the necessary means to it.
See Adam Leite, 'Epistemic Instrumentalism and Reasons for Belief: A Reply to Tom Kelly's Epistemic Rationality as Instrumental Rationality
: A Critique' (2007) 75 Philosophy and Phenomenological Research Journal 456.
The modern stream is greatly influenced by the Frankfurt School, which denounced the consequences of massive industrialization, totalitarianism, capitalism and instrumental rationality
, while proposing alternatives and questioning dogmas (Alvesson and Willmott 1996):
The first relation was marked by instrumental rationality
, while the latter was based on the rationality of caring.
Betts produces ten critiques of the very possibility of this sort of instrumental rationality
. These range from the difficulty in all wars of predicting what the political result of using force might be to the possibility that nonrational psychological and cultural mind-sets may blind leaders to what actually motivates them.
After emergence of the participatory processes people did not have a significant role in decision-making process, and beginning of the supportive and justice plans in line with participation of the deprived groups and it has applied instrumental rationality
and in practice, participation was occurred mostly in a form of representative participation.