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see Dewey, JohnDewey, John,
1859–1952, American philosopher and educator, b. Burlington, Vt., grad. Univ. of Vermont, 1879, Ph.D. Johns Hopkins, 1884. He taught at the universities of Minnesota (1888–89), Michigan (1884–88, 1889–94), and Chicago (1894–1904) and at
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the subjective idealist doctrine of the American philosopher John Dewey and his followers, a variety of pragmatism.

In the instrumentalist view, consciousness (or intelligence, in Dewey’s terms) is a means of adaptation to changing environmental conditions: logical concepts, ideas, and scientific laws and theories are all simply instruments (hence the name “instrumen-talism”), tools, “keys to situations,” or “plans for action.” In thus rejecting the objective content of knowledge and the view that truth is a reflection of material reality, instrumentalism regards truth in purely functional respects as something that “assures success in a given situation.” Taking the concept “situation” as central, instrumentalism singles out the organism (for example, an animal, a human being, or a society) and the environment as the chief aspects of a situation and declares the central problem to be the analysis of the relations between them. Insofar as the instrumentalist point of view regards environmental features as derivative from the actions of the organism, the organism appears as something primary, a view that makes it possible to characterize instrumentalism as one of the many varieties of subjective idealism.

The leading instrumentalists (Dewey, S. Hook) are active opponents of socialism and of Marxist-Leninist theory.


References in periodicals archive ?
This attention to language and the re-writing of the curriculum as it is related to transcending the hold and sway of metaphysical instrumentalism with its reified categories of classification, importantly, reflects directly on the conception and understanding of the living human subject.
Harel's argument against constitutional instrumentalism is that it distorts what is really valuable about constitutionalism, namely, the sense that "constitutions are a necessary (rather than contingent) feature of a just or legitimate society" (p.
Such instrumentalism is readily identified as the hidden premise in the notorious debates in the 1980s about the effectiveness of educational media (Clark, 1983; Kozma, 1991).
As an interest-based approach, instrumentalism means here that a perpetrator state's behavior is shaped by calculations of national interests.
Brass's Instrumentalism as a framework for studying nationalism in Catalonia Ethnicity and nationalism have been debated by many theorists and political scientists.
This sought to restate the legitimacy of public funding for culture in terms beyond both economic growth and social instrumentalism.
The first is a reaction to the dominance of instrumentalism in legal reasoning and legal theory, particularly utilitarianism and its main variant, law and economics.
Although instrumentalism did not succeed in eliminating either morality or tradition from the legal system, it did largely succeed in breaking the connection between the two.
Whether as a sophisticated philosophy of knowing, or merely as a dominant view on what drives the universe, instrumentalism can be criticised as crude and heartless.
Chapter 6 addresses ideology drawing from Marx and the Frankfurt school for examples of how the media have dominated culture through instrumentalism.
According to Semantic Instrumentalism, you have now done all that's required to think a singular thought about Beardo.