Intellect

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intellect

the capacity for understanding, thinking, and reasoning, as distinct from feeling or wishing

Intellect

 

the capacity for thought and rational cognition, in contrast to, for example, such mental capabilities as feelings, will, intuition, and imagination.

The term “intellect” is derived from the Latin translation of the ancient Greek concept nous (mind), and its meaning is identical. In their theories Plato and Aristotle treated nous as the higher, supraindividual, rational part of the human soul; the “mind” as the first stage in emanation of the world, its flow from the single prime source, is a development of Neoplatonism. This meaning of the term was also adopted by medieval Scholasticism (intellect as divine intellect). In contrast to “reason” as the lower cognitive capacity (for elementary abstraction), the term “intellect” was used in Scholasticism to signify a higher cognitive capacity (suprasensory grasping of spiritual essences). These concepts were employed by Kant in an opposite sense: understanding, or intellect (in German, Verstand), as the ability to form concepts, and reason (in German, Vernunft) as the ability to form metaphysical ideas. This word usage became widespread in subsequent German philosophy and was definitively established by Hegel with his concepts of understanding (intellect) and reason. The former as a capacity for abstract-analytical differentiation is a preliminary condition for higher, rational, concrete-dialectical comprehension.

Since the end of the 19th century diverse quantitative methods for evaluating intellect, the level of mental development, by means of special tests and specific systems for statistical processing of these tests in factor analysis have become widespread in experimental psychology.

In animal psychology certain reactions of which higher animals, for the most part monkeys, are capable are regarded as intellect (or “manual thought”). Such reactions are characterized by sudden solutions of problems, easy reproduction of solutions once they have been discovered, their transfer to situations somewhat different from original ones, and, finally, a capacity to solve “two-phase” tasks.

In Soviet psychology the concept of intellect is used mainly in theory of individual-typological features of personality development (see B. M. Teplov, Problemy individual’nykh razlichii, Moscow, 1961, pp. 252–344). On a more general level intellect is a synonym for thought, the mental development of the individual.

IU. N. POPOV

INTELLECT

(language)
A query language written by Larry Harris in 1977, close to natural English.

Intellect

A natural language query program for IBM mainframes developed by Artificial Intelligence Corporation. The company was later acquired by Trinzic Corporation, which was acquired by Platinum, which was acquired by Computer Associates.
References in classic literature ?
Neither by detachment neither by aggregation is the integrity of the intellect transmitted to its works, but by a vigilance which brings the intellect in its greatness and best state to operate every moment.
Entire self-reliance belongs to the intellect. One soul is a counterpoise of all souls, as a capillary column of water is a balance for the sea.
But I cannot recite, even thus rudely, laws of the intellect, without remembering that lofty and sequestered class of men who have been its prophets and oracles, the high- priesthood of the pure reason, the Trismegisti, the expounders of the principles of thought from age to age.
This emancipation is dear to all men, and the power to impart it, as it must come from greater depth and scope of thought, is a measure of intellect. Therefore all books of the imagination endure, all which ascend to that truth that the writer sees nature beneath him, and uses it as his exponent.
They found or put themselves in certain conditions, as, the painter and sculptor before some impressive human figures; the orator, into the assembly of the people; and the others in such scenes as each has found exciting to his intellect; and each presently feels the new desire.
If possible intellects and their acts of thinking are multiplied in accordance with bodies (secundum corpora), then they will not remain when the bodies have been destroyed, and the Christian belief in postmortem rewards and punishments will lose its ontological ground.
The authors examine US schools' failure to consider the intellects and talents of children, particularly gifted children.
As Ghazali trys to raise doubts about intellects in the book named "Al-manqaz min Al-zalal", he believes that it is possible to reach a verdict which refutes intellectual approachs as well, thus the intellect are not an appropriate criteria for judgment alone.
Aristotle's ideas survived the dark ages as did Ibn Sina's, whose contributions to logic, metaphysics and medicine proved to be so valuable that coherent intellects could not but bow to his wisdom.