intelligent machine

intelligent machine

[in′tel·ə·jənt mə′shēn]
(computer science)
A machine that uses sensors to monitor the environment and thereby adjust its actions to accomplish specific tasks in the face of uncertainty and variability.
(engineering)
Any machine that can accomplish its specific task in the presence of uncertainty and variability in its environment.

Intelligent machine

Any machine that can accomplish its specific task in the presence of uncertainty and variability in its environment. The machine's ability to monitor its environment, allowing it to adjust its actions based on what it has sensed, is a prerequisite for intelligence. The term intelligent machine is an anthropomorphism in that intelligence is defined by the criterion that the actions would appear intelligent if a person were to do it. A precise, unambiguous, and commonly held definition of intelligence does not exist.

Examples of intelligent machines include industrial robots equipped with sensors, computers equipped with speech recognition and voice synthesis, self-guided vehicles relying on vision rather than on marked roadways, and so-called smart weapons, which are capable of target identification. These varied systems include three major subsystems: sensors, actuators, and control. The class of computer programs known as expert systems is included with intelligent machines, even though the sensory input and output functions are simply character-oriented communications. The complexity of control and the mimicking of human deductive and logic skills makes expert systems central in the realm of intelligent machines. See Computer vision, Expert systems, Guidance systems, Robotics

Since the physical embodiment of the machine or the particular task performed by the machine does not mark it as intelligent, the appearance of intelligence must come from the nature of the control or decision-making process that the machine performs. Given the centrality of control to any form of intelligent machine, intelligent control is the essence of an intelligent machine. The control function accepts several kinds of data, including the specification for the task to be performed and the current state of the task from the sensors. The control function then computes the signals needed to accomplish the task. When the task is completed, this also must be recognized and the controller must signal the supervisor that it is ready for the next assignment (see illustration). See Adaptive control, Control systems

Automatic, feedback, or regulatory systems such as thermostats, automobile cruise controls, and photoelectric door openers are not considered intelligent machines. Several important concepts separate these simple feedback and control systems from intelligent control. While examples could be derived from any of the classes of intelligent machines, robots will be used here to illustrate five concepts that are typical of intelligent control. (1) An intelligent control system typically deals with many sources of information about its state and the state of its environment. (2) An intelligent control system can accommodate incomplete or inconsistent information. (3) Intelligent control is characterized by the use of heuristic methods in addition to algorithmic control methods. (A heuristic is a rule of thumb, a particular solution or strategy to be used for solving a problem that can be used for only very limited ranges of the input parameters.) (4) An intelligent machine has a builtin knowledge base that it can use to deal with infrequent or unplanned events. (5) An algorithmic control approach assumes that all relevant data for making decisions is available.

References in classic literature ?
Ceaselessly active, head and hand, an intelligent machine, all that constituted him a man was devoted to furnishing that intelligence.
To cope with competition from China, Chang urges domestic manufacturers to develop instant-control systems to facilitate production of intelligent machine tools, which can automatically monitor operations and problems, as well as help manufacturers keep up with renowned brands of Germany and Japan.
The Intelligent Machine Health Monitoring system is now offered standard on all Hornet horizontal carousels from Sapient Automation, announced Ed Romaine, chief marketing officer.
ASMALL Northumberland company believes its intelligent machine tooling software could help quadruple its turnover in the next five years as it helps engineering giants save millions of pounds.
"At some point in the not-too-distant future, we might actually face a sentient, intelligent machine who demands, or who many come to believe deserves, some form of legal protection....
Under the attention of relevant provincial and municipal leaders and industry representatives, dozens of domestic advanced intelligent machine tools were launched to open hot production scenes.
It was the first time in history that an intelligent machine was able to surpass the mind of a grandmaster renowned for his brilliance and iron will.
Computer scientists and related researchers discuss the growing dependency on intelligent machines, intelligent machine technologies as a window on human morality both as evolved and as evident in current Internet discourse, the ethics of human enhancement from moral perception to competition in the workplace, the ethics of distancing technologies in education and warfare, and integral visions of morality in a technological world over evolutionary time with revolutionary means and with open questions about the final purpose of it all.
Komatsu America introduced the PC210LCi-10 intelligent Machine Control excavator to the North American market at a special event held at Komatsu Training and Demo Center in Cartersville, Ga.
2 May 2013 - German intelligent machine vision systems software developer Isra Vision AG (ETR:ISR) said Thursday it had acquired domestic GP Solar GmbH and its unit GP Inspect GmbH, part of Centrotherm photovoltaics AG (ETR:CTN).
Liu Chao-kai, chairman of TECOM, a major Taiwanese telecommunications equipment supplier, noted that China's "safe city" program will bring considerable business opportunities for Taiwanese suppliers of key WiMAX components, including components for WiMAX bases, such as remote wireless modules and intelligent machine frames.

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