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Related to Intensification: extensification, westward intensification


An operation that increases the value of the membership function of a fuzzy set if the value is equal to or greater than 0.5, and decreases it if it is less than 0.5.



in photography, the process of increasing the optical density of a photographic image, primarily for the correction of underexposed or underdeveloped negatives. Intensification is the opposite of reduction. It may be accomplished by the accumulation of a metal, such as mercury or silver, or of some opaque compound on the silver grains in an image, as well as by toning. Because of the attendant complexity, there is no practical intensification process for multilayer color materials.

In intensification, the metallic silver in an image is bleached with solutions of mercuric chloride, potassium bichromate, or other compound, and subsequently darkened in highly active developers, ammonia solutions, or other agents. Intensification results from reduction of the bleaching agents to finely dispersed metal powders (mercury from mercuric chloride) or difficultly soluble opaque compounds (Cr2O3 · CrO3 from potassium bichromate), which are precipitated on the metallic silver grains of the image to create increased optical density. On bleaching with copper bromide, darkening is effected by a silver nitrate solution as a source of additional metal, which is precipitated on the image. If intensification is achieved by toning, the negative usually turns brown. Furthermore, its effective photographic opacity increases as the emulsion absorbs blue light, to which positive photographic materials are most sensitive.

Intensification may be classified as proportional, subproportional, or superproportional. In proportional intensification the optical densities increase in proportion to their initial values, but very low densities show almost no increase. In subproportional intensification, low densities increase substantially more than average and high densities. In superproportional intensification, high densities increase more than small and average densities.


Tsyganov, M. N. Ustranenie defektov fotograficheskogo izobrazheniia. Moscow, 1957.
Mikulin, V. P. Fotograficheskii retsepturnyi spravochnik, 4th ed. Moscow, 1972.


References in periodicals archive ?
The misperceptions encountered at insulin intensification may differ from those at initiation.
In less developed economies, ecological intensification can become accessible to subsistence farmers and growers who have limited access to capital since the beneficial ecosystem services are derivatives of the crop ecosystem itself.
Patients prescribed metformin were less likely to require treatment intensification compared with those who used the other medications.
Many municipalities," the study claims, "are not intending to achieve 40 per cent intensification or to accommodate 50 people and jobs per hectare in new developments.
Fifth, a fundamental factor behind such growth has been the dynamic association between crop intensification and a remarkable expansion of agricultural area.
Of 27,947 patients with LDL-C levels of less than 100 mg/dL (the guideline-recommended LDL-C target) 9,200 had additional lipid tests without treatment intensification during the following 11 months.
Those relations concern not only our joint mission in Afghanistan, but also particular intensification of the
Agricultural intensification on existing farmland through improved practices and technology transfer--rather than clearing more land--offers the most sustainable approach to increasing food supply and minimizing risks to human and environmental health, the researchers believe.
In this paper, the authors investigate the consequences of curricular intensification by examining changes in the social organization of schooling and student achievement in one California school district.
The situation in Pakistan, throughout Pakistan since Osama bin Laden s death, has seen an intensification of fighting and an intensification of violence," said Pascal Cuttat, the International Committee of the Red Cross s head in Pakistan.