Intensification


Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus.
Related to Intensification: extensification, westward intensification

intensification

[in‚tens·ə·fə′kā·shən]
(mathematics)
An operation that increases the value of the membership function of a fuzzy set if the value is equal to or greater than 0.5, and decreases it if it is less than 0.5.

Intensification

 

in photography, the process of increasing the optical density of a photographic image, primarily for the correction of underexposed or underdeveloped negatives. Intensification is the opposite of reduction. It may be accomplished by the accumulation of a metal, such as mercury or silver, or of some opaque compound on the silver grains in an image, as well as by toning. Because of the attendant complexity, there is no practical intensification process for multilayer color materials.

In intensification, the metallic silver in an image is bleached with solutions of mercuric chloride, potassium bichromate, or other compound, and subsequently darkened in highly active developers, ammonia solutions, or other agents. Intensification results from reduction of the bleaching agents to finely dispersed metal powders (mercury from mercuric chloride) or difficultly soluble opaque compounds (Cr2O3 · CrO3 from potassium bichromate), which are precipitated on the metallic silver grains of the image to create increased optical density. On bleaching with copper bromide, darkening is effected by a silver nitrate solution as a source of additional metal, which is precipitated on the image. If intensification is achieved by toning, the negative usually turns brown. Furthermore, its effective photographic opacity increases as the emulsion absorbs blue light, to which positive photographic materials are most sensitive.

Intensification may be classified as proportional, subproportional, or superproportional. In proportional intensification the optical densities increase in proportion to their initial values, but very low densities show almost no increase. In subproportional intensification, low densities increase substantially more than average and high densities. In superproportional intensification, high densities increase more than small and average densities.

REFERENCES

Tsyganov, M. N. Ustranenie defektov fotograficheskogo izobrazheniia. Moscow, 1957.
Mikulin, V. P. Fotograficheskii retsepturnyi spravochnik, 4th ed. Moscow, 1972.

L. D. PERVOVA

References in periodicals archive ?
"The fusion of thermal and image intensification technologies is the next significant advancement for soldier's 'own the night' overmatch."
Investigators determined that much of the available guidance to gas system operators for limiting stress intensification at plastic pipeline connections to steel mains is inadequate or ambiguous.
Canadian Residential Intensification Initiatives - points out how popular suburban life is in Canada.
Colantonio, M.D., Ph.D., from the University of Alabama at Birmingham, and colleagues assessed the risk for CVD events among adults recommended and not recommended antihypertensive medication initiation or intensification based on the 2017 ACC/AHA blood pressure guideline.
Those runs failed to show Patricia reaching the accurate peak intensity as well as undergoing rapid intensification. Thus, we determined that our simulation fared best within the 1-km resolution domain.
Klemes and colleagues have revised their textbook and reference on process integration and intensification to incorporate feedback from instructors and researchers and to expand its coverage.
Asked if the intensified process was yielding results, Eide said: "I feel that we are in a constructive phase because, yes, the intensification is helpful."
The growing potential for cooperation in the field of online media and intensification of contacts are intended to encourage more efficient use of international experience in the legal regulation of Internet.
Chemists and chemical engineers mostly in Europe, but also India, Malaysia, and the US, explore process intensification as an emerging approach to reducing the generation of byproducts during chemical processing, especially at separation stages, which generate the most.
Diabetic patients with high LDL were more likely to receive treatment intensification and to be retested within 90 days than they had been before the EHR program was implemented.
Coimbatore, Dec 15 (ANI): Rice Intensification technology known as System of Rice Intensification (SRI) for having bigger yields with less seeds, water and fertilizers is gaining popularity in India.
The frequency of pharmacologic antihypertensive treatment intensification decreased from about 27% for physicians who were board certified the previous year to about 7% for those who were board certified 31 years before the visit.

Full browser ?