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An operation that increases the value of the membership function of a fuzzy set if the value is equal to or greater than 0.5, and decreases it if it is less than 0.5.



in photography, the process of increasing the optical density of a photographic image, primarily for the correction of underexposed or underdeveloped negatives. Intensification is the opposite of reduction. It may be accomplished by the accumulation of a metal, such as mercury or silver, or of some opaque compound on the silver grains in an image, as well as by toning. Because of the attendant complexity, there is no practical intensification process for multilayer color materials.

In intensification, the metallic silver in an image is bleached with solutions of mercuric chloride, potassium bichromate, or other compound, and subsequently darkened in highly active developers, ammonia solutions, or other agents. Intensification results from reduction of the bleaching agents to finely dispersed metal powders (mercury from mercuric chloride) or difficultly soluble opaque compounds (Cr2O3 · CrO3 from potassium bichromate), which are precipitated on the metallic silver grains of the image to create increased optical density. On bleaching with copper bromide, darkening is effected by a silver nitrate solution as a source of additional metal, which is precipitated on the image. If intensification is achieved by toning, the negative usually turns brown. Furthermore, its effective photographic opacity increases as the emulsion absorbs blue light, to which positive photographic materials are most sensitive.

Intensification may be classified as proportional, subproportional, or superproportional. In proportional intensification the optical densities increase in proportion to their initial values, but very low densities show almost no increase. In subproportional intensification, low densities increase substantially more than average and high densities. In superproportional intensification, high densities increase more than small and average densities.


Tsyganov, M. N. Ustranenie defektov fotograficheskogo izobrazheniia. Moscow, 1957.
Mikulin, V. P. Fotograficheskii retsepturnyi spravochnik, 4th ed. Moscow, 1972.


References in periodicals archive ?
They called on the committee to intensify their field presence before the launch of the new school year.
Unique are ambassadors for Intensify which aims to make a difference in young people's lives through music by taking a stand against street crime, gangs and drug use.
Again, physicians were more likely to intensify treatment at higher blood pressure levels.
Globalization does affect childhood, and the relationship will surely intensify in future.
The Swedish bus maker Volvo Buses and the Dutch coach builder Berkhof-Jonckheere have entered into an agreement to intensify co-operation within marketing and sales in the UK and Benelux countries.
Summary: New Delhi [India], July 29 (ANI): Prime Minister Narendra Modi combined oratorical flair and a love for Bollywood to drive home the message to intensify efforts to preserve the population of tigers.
Hail is forecasted.West wind will intensify in some places.
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The industry-based Information and Communications Technology-Davao (ICT-Davao) is coming up with recommendations that it will submit to the city government for them to collaborate on to intensify digital transformation.
?The groundbreaking decision will promote the security of Jewish communities throughout Europe and intensify the struggle against anti-Semitism.??
The Health Supervision section of the Municipal Control Department at the municipality is planning to further intensify inspection of restaurants, cafeterias, poultry and fish shops.