hybrid

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hybrid

(hī`brĭd), term applied by plant and animal breeders to the offspring of a cross between two different subspecies or species, and by geneticists to the offspring of parents differing in any genetic characteristic (see geneticsgenetics,
scientific study of the mechanism of heredity. While Gregor Mendel first presented his findings on the statistical laws governing the transmission of certain traits from generation to generation in 1856, it was not until the discovery and detailed study of the
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). The mulemule,
hybrid offspring of a male donkey (see ass) and a female horse, bred as a work animal. The name is also sometimes applied to the hinny, the offspring of a male horse and female donkey; hinnies are considered inferior to mules.
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, the hybrid steer, and hybrid corn are examples of hybrids produced by breeders, but some animal species may cross-breed in the wild, as the gray wolf and coyote sometimes do. Hybridization between cultivars or varieties is often used in agriculture to obtain greater vigor or growth (heterosis). Hybrid vigor is achieved by crossing two inbred strains (see breedingbreeding,
in agriculture and animal husbandry, propagation of plants and animals by sexual reproduction; usually based on selection of parents with desirable traits to produce improved progeny.
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). The first generation shows greatly increased vigor and a better yield primarily because many genes for recessive, often deleterious, traits from one parent are masked by corresponding dominant genes in the other parent.

Hybrid

 

sexual offspring produced by the crossing of two genotypically different organisms. The organisms crossed are called parental forms and are designated by the letter P. The maternal form or female individual is designated by the symbol ♀ , the paternal form or male individual by the symbol ♂, crossing by the symbol ×, hybrid offspring of the first generation by F with the subscript 1 (F1), second generation by F2, and so forth. For example, the F4 hybrid of ♀(beardless wheat) Bezostaia 1 × ♂ Belotserkovskaia 198 is the fourth generation of the hybrid in which the maternal form was Bezostaia 1 and the paternal form Belotserkovskaia 198. Hybrids may be spontaneous or artificial, intraspecific or remote. The following hybrids are distinguished in breeding corn: the intervarietal, when two varieties are crossed; the variety-line hybrid, when a variety is crossed with an inbred line (for example, to produce the hybrid Bukovinskii 3: ♀ Gloriia lanetskogo × ♂ VIR 44); the single cross hybrid, from the crossing of two strains (for example, the hybrid Slava is produced by crossing the inbred lines ♀ VIR 44 ×♂ VIR 38); and the double cross hybrid from crossing two simple hybrids (for example, the hybrid VIR 42 is produced by crossing ♀ Slava × ♂ Svetoch).

D. M. SHCHERBINA

hybrid

[′hī·brəd]
(genetics)
The offspring of parents of different species or varieties.
(petrology)
Pertaining to a rock formed by the assimilation of two magmas.
(science and technology)
Having two or more different characteristics or types of structure.

hybrid

Said of a plant produced by crossing two distant varieties or species.

hybrid

1. an animal or plant resulting from a cross between genetically unlike individuals. Hybrids between different species are usually sterile
2. a vehicle that is powered by an internal-combustion engine and another source of power such as a battery
3. (of a vehicle) powered by more than one source
4. Physics (of an electromagnetic wave) having components of both electric and magnetic field vectors in the direction of propagation
5. Electronics
a. (of a circuit) consisting of transistors and valves
b. (of an integrated circuit) consisting of one or more fully integrated circuits and other components, attached to a ceramic substrate

Hybrid

A concurrent object-oriented language.

["Active Objects in Hybrid", O.M. Nierstrasz, SIGPLAN Notices 22(12):243-253 (OOPSLA '87) (Dec 1987)].

hybrid

(1) Products that combine two or more different technologies. For data and software hybrids, see hybrid file, hybrid app and hybrid mobile app. For hardware hybrids, see hybrid laptop, hybrid computer, hybrid cloud, eSATA USB Hybrid Port, hybrid smartwatch, hybrid drive, hybrid circuit and hybrid microcircuit.

(2) Also known as a "termination" or "term set," a hybrid is a device that adapts a two-wire telephone line from a home or business into a four-wire trunk at the telco central office. Hybrids also exist within the telephone handset, converting the two-wire line into four wires: two for the speaker; two for the microphone. See echo cancellation.
References in periodicals archive ?
To win three interbreed championships with three different sheep and two of them in space of two days is just unbelievable.
Edward, a former Colwyn Bay butcher, who now lets flats for a living, watched on as Jeanette won their second interbreed sash of the summer.
I'll Be There and her commercial herd mates, Cinnamon and Dancing Queen from the same home, were back in business in the interbreed groups too, winning the supreme overall again.
Top display Interbreed Champion presented by A and E Vance
Supreme Sheep Interbreed highland Champion, 3 year old Ewe, Welsh Hill Speckle Face with owner Richard Howatson, Erw Salusbury, Denbigh Vintage traction engine from Anglesey on display Supreme Sheep Reserve Interbreed group of three Champions, was won by the Kerry Hill breed, by the Roberts family, L/R Gwennan and Geraint Roberts pictured with their daughter Alys of Pengwern Bach, Henllan, Denbigh Judge Wyn Jones selects his Beef Champion (second from left) Hereford 'Dendor 1 Firkin'' a 4-year-old Bull with Cennydd Lewis Owen from Hefin Owen, Cefn Du Isaf, Gaerwen, Anglesey
Dairy Interbreed: S&P Bell with Indianhead Durham Roxan
Established in 1979 the herd has earned an exceptional show-and-sale record with possibly the pinnacle of success achieved in 1999 with the bull Ryedale Orion who was Interbreed Junior Champion at the Royal Welsh Show, Royal Highland Show and the Royal Show in the same season.
The Charolais stock bull from Major David Walter at Balthayock dominated the day's final line-up which included the Texel sheep interbreed champion, a British Toggenberg goat and an 11-year-old donkey, Gamlingay Love In A Mist, which has won the Royal Highland Show five times.
Hannah ofTiptop stood national champion, interbreed short wool champion and supreme interbreed champion.
A HARDY Welsh ram grabbed an unaccustomed place in the spotlight in the hill breed show rings yesterday Watched by daughters Mona and Nia, Tudur Williams of Rhydeidion Bach, Llansannan, guided his four-year-old tup to the reserve interbreed sash.
Institute of Evolutionary Sciences in France has characterized the ability of organisms to interbreed and exchange genes within this gray zone.
Interbreed winner was a Charollais shearling ewe from Carol Watson, Northants, who has now won the supreme sash at the Primin on seven occasions in 24 attempts.