Modifications occurring in the epidermis result in epidermal papillae that take part in the proliferation of keratinocytes, which synthesize keratin and intercellular cement
, substances which are linked to hoof quality and integrity (Konig et al., 2007).
Ceramides, specific lipid components of the skin, represent 35-40% of the intercellular cement
binding cells together and contributing to skin hydration.
Biotin is involved in keratin protein synthesis and formation of the intercellular cement
(Sarasin, 1994; Whitehead, 1988).
The high proportion of 7- to 12% gamma-linoleic acid helps protect the skin barrier, as unsaturated fatty acids regenerate the intercellular cement
of the epidermis.