Since soft-tissue landmarks have been shown to hold a variable relationship to underlying bony structures, real-time ultrasonography can be used to confirm the intercostal
space during CTI. Nonpulmonologists have been reported to have the ability to perform ultrasound-guided thoracic procedures with similar complication rates as pulmonologists. In addition, the increased safety of ultrasound-guided CTI even in patients with significant coagulopathy, such as those receiving clopidogrel therapy, was reported. Therefore, appropriate training in thoracic ultrasonography is necessary for medical personnel involved in emergencies and in the care of patients with thoracic disease.
From its origin, it follows a descending and oblique path toward the anterior at the level of the medial axillary line, extending to the sixth intercostal
space where anastomose with the intercostal
arteries of the sixth intercostal
space, generating an intermediate longitudinal vascular axis for this vessel in the same manner as observed in the right side.
Therefore, in order to decrease the post-thoracotomy pain, intraoperative protection of intercostal
nerves should be taken into consideration.
Beckman, "Coarctation of the aorta associated with intercostal
artery aneurysms--computed tomography diagnosis," Journal of Computed Tomography, vol.
Maher, "Demonstration of the course of the posterior Intercostal
artery on CT angiography: relevance to interventional radiology procedures in the chest," Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, vol.
An injury in which the abdominal viscera herniate through the diaphragm into the thoracic cavity and through the chest wall is known as a transdiaphragmatic intercostal
A chest CT scan demonstrated herniation of lung tissue through the anterior third intercostal
In the flamingos, the heart was situated in between the 1st and 3rd intercostal
and limb muscle blood volume and oxygenation were continuously recorded by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS; Oxiplex TS, ISS, USA) using transducers having a fixed 3-cm distance between the light source and detector.
We found the undivided lateral cutaneous branch of 2nd intercostal
nerve piercing the second intercostal
space at midaxillary plane, running along the base of axilla to reach the upper and medial part of arm where they join with medial cutaneous nerve of arm on each side in 29 cadavers out of 40 adult embalmed cadavers.
Other less common techniques, such as the "upper V-type" ministernotomy in the second intercostal
space, also involve limited exposure .