Ochiai et al., "Direct nerve crossing with the intercostal nerve
to treat avulsion injuries of the brachial plexus," Journal of Hand Surgery, vol.
Illustration of the 4th intercostal nerve
to the breast
Intrapleural intercostal nerve
block associated with mini-thoracotomy improves pain control after major lung resection.
Currently, surgeons use epidurals, intercostal nerve
blocks and prescription narcotics for pain management.
United States-based Pacira Pharmaceuticals (NASDAQ:PCRX) has reported negative results from the second Phase III trial of exparel (bupivacaine liposome injectable suspension) in intercostal nerve
block for posterolateral thoracotomy, it was reported yesterday.
Flank bulge has never been reported following PCNL; however, flank bulge is a known potential complication of flank incisions for various retroperitoneal surgical procedures and has been reported in the urological,[sup.12] vascular[sup.13] and neurosurgical literature.[sup.14,15] Flank bulge due to laxity of the anterolateral abdominal musculature may be caused by damage to intercostal nerves
.[sup.14] In a cadaveric and electrophysiological study, Fahim and colleagues showed that the most significant intercostal nerve
contributions to the anterolateral wall came from the T11 and T12 nerves.[sup.14] They concluded that postoperative flank bulge was likely due to denervation of the abdominal musculature from injury to the T11 and T12 intercostal nerves
Posterior intercostal nerve
block for pain relief after cholecystectomy.
Koshima et al described a single-stage facial reanimation procedure that involved a rectus abdominis free muscle transfer along with a long intercostal nerve
that could reach the contralateral facial nerve branches.
Regional anaesthesia is usually divided into either central (epidural, spinal and caudal anaesthesia), or peripheral nerve blocks (lumbar plexus, brachial, intercostal nerve
Incidence of pneumothorax from intercostal nerve
block for analgesia in rib fractures.
Various regional anaesthetic techniques have been described in the literature including brachial plexus blocks, [2,3] intercostal nerve
blocks,  field blocks,  local infiltration  and thoracic epidural anaesthesia.
Based on the development of microsurgical techniques with knowledge for microanatomy of peripheral nerve, various donors have been found, such as intra- or extra-plexus nerve donor, including accessory nerve transfer, intercostal nerve
transfer, and phrenic nerve transfer.