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1. Chem a surface that forms the boundary between two bodies, liquids, or chemical phases
2. an electrical circuit linking one device, esp a computer, with another
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005


(computer science)
Some form of electronic device that enables one piece of gear to communicate with or control another.
A device linking two otherwise incompatible devices, such as an editing terminal of one manufacturer to typesetter of another.
(physical chemistry)
The boundary between any two phases: among the three phases (gas, liquid, and solid), there are five types of interfaces: gas-liquid, gas-solid, liquid-liquid, liquid-solid, and solid-solid.
(science and technology)
A shared boundary; it may be a piece of hardware used between two pieces of equipment, a portion of computer storage accessed by two or more programs, or a surface that forms the boundary between two types of materials.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.


The common boundary, often a plane surface, between two bodies or materials.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Architecture and Construction. Copyright © 2003 by McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.


A boundary across which two systems communicate. An interface might be a hardware connector used to link to other devices, or it might be a convention used to allow communication between two software systems. Often there is some intermediate component between the two systems which connects their interfaces together. For example, two EIA-232 interfaces connected via a serial cable.

See also graphical user interface, Application Program Interface.
This article is provided by FOLDOC - Free Online Dictionary of Computing (


The connection and interaction between hardware, software and the user. Users "talk to" the software. The software "talks to" the hardware and other software. Hardware "talks to" other hardware. All this is interfacing. It has to be designed, developed, tested and redesigned; and with each incarnation, a new specification is born that may become yet one more de facto or regulated standard.

Hardware Interfaces
Hardware interfaces are the plugs, sockets, cables and electrical signals traveling through them. Examples are USB, FireWire, Ethernet, ATA/IDE, SCSI and PCI.

Software/Programming Interfaces
Software interfaces (programming interfaces) are the languages, codes and messages that programs use to communicate with each other and to the hardware. Examples are the Windows, Mac and Linux operating systems, SMTP email, IP network protocols and the software drivers that activate the peripheral devices.

User Interfaces
User interfaces are the keyboards, mice, commands and menus used for communication between you and the computer. Examples are the command lines in DOS and Unix, and the graphical interfaces in Windows, Mac and Linux.

Format & Function

Every interface implies a structure. Electrical signals are made up of voltage levels, frequencies and duration. The data passed from one device or program to another has a precise format (header, body, trailer, etc.).

Every interface implies a function. At the hardware level, electronic signals activate functions; data are read, written, transmitted, received, checked for error, etc. At the software level, instructions activate the hardware (access methods, data link protocols, etc.). At higher levels, the data transferred or transmitted may itself request functions to be performed (client/server, program to program, etc.).

Language & Programming

An interface is activated by programming language commands. The complexity of the functions and the design of the language determine how difficult it is to program.

User Interface, Protocol, API and ABI

The design of the interaction between the user and the computer is called a "user interface." The rules, formats and functions between components in a communications system or network are called "protocols." The language and message formats between routines within a program or between software components is called an "application programming interface" (API). The specification for an operating system working in a specific machine environment has been known as an "application binary interface" (ABI), but this term is not widely used.

All the above interactions are interfaces. Regardless of what they are called, they all create rules that must be precisely followed in a digital world.

A Whole Lot of Talking To
No matter what they're called, interfaces boil down to a format and language that defines the services one system is capable of delivering to another.
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References in periodicals archive ?
PC-b-PMMA copolymers were produced from MMA monomer and vinyl terminated polycarbonate prepared by interfacially reacting bisphenol-A with triphosgene and p-isopropenylphenol.
Therefore, for systems that failed interfacially, this test might not be a true indication of the value of these toughening domains.
Blend compatibilization is most often achieved by the addition of an interfacially active agent, such as a block copolymer (3-6).
Another approach is assuming that viscous flow (interfacially driven coalescence, reshaping agglomeration) leads to the reduction of the interfacial area (13, 15).
From this and previous work (13), the copolymers used here as compatibilizers are known to be interfacially active, and as discussed above we have seen that excess copolymer forms micelles within the PE phase.
Attempts to synthesize the halatopolymers interfacially, similar to the method of Hardiman and Archer (21) for some dioxouranium VI carboxylate polymers, was unsuccessful (15).
The results from image analysis and TEM and SEM micrographs indicate that delayed cycle times in the molding of Noryl GTX results in coalescence of the PPO phase, probably because of the compatibilizer that interfacially bonds the PPO to the nylon matrix.
Since the E-EA-GMA and E-EA copolymers are mutually miscible, the mixture presumably acts as a single-phase rubbery dispersion, but interfacially grafted to the PET phase.

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