fixation

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fixation:

see psychoanalysispsychoanalysis,
name given by Sigmund Freud to a system of interpretation and therapeutic treatment of psychological disorders. Psychoanalysis began after Freud studied (1885–86) with the French neurologist J. M.
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The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia™ Copyright © 2013, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved. www.cc.columbia.edu/cu/cup/
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Fixation

 

a method of preserving the structure of animal and plant cells and tissues through treatment with chemical and physical agents. Fixation is used to obtain medicinal preparations.

Physical techniques include drying and freezing at low temperatures in a vacuum (lyophilization). Specimens may be treated chemically with such reagents as formaldehyde, alcohol, acetone, and osmium tetroxide. Many reagents are used in combination with other substances, such as potassium bichromate, mercuric chloride, and picric acid; such fixatives are usually named after the researchers who proposed them, for example, Zenker’s and Maximow’s fixatives and Flemming’s, Carnoy’s, and Bouin’s solutions. The choice of technique depends on the properties and size of the specimen and the purpose of the study. For example, alcohol fixation is adequate to preserve nucleic acids, but enzyme activity is completely preserved only after lyophilization. Fixation in aldehydes is recommended for electron microscopy. Double fixation is used for better preservation of tissue, that is, primary fixation with an aldehyde fixative and a second fixation with osmium tetroxide.

REFERENCES

Roskin, G. I., and L. B. Levinson. Mikroskopicheskaia tekhnika, 3rd ed. Moscow, 1957.
Rukovodstvo po tsitologii, vol. 1. Moscow-Leningrad, 1965.

M. E. ASPIZ

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.

fixation

[fik′sā·shən]
(psychology)
A rigid habit developed as a consequence of repeated reinforcement, or of frustration.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

fixation

1. Psychol
a. the act of fixating
b. (in psychoanalytical schools) a strong attachment of a person to another person or an object in early life
2. Chem
a. the conversion of nitrogen in the air into a compound, esp a fertilizer
b. the conversion of a free element into one of its compounds
3. the reduction of a substance from a volatile or fluid form to a nonvolatile or solid form
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
Care in the placement of bicortical intermaxillary fixation screws.
Conservative treatment of a mandibular condyle fracture: comparing intermaxillary fixation with screws or arch bar.
The initiation of treatments like non-surgical treatment may be done by with or without intermaxillary fixation and general or local anesthesia.
Some non-surgical methods like autologous blood injection in upper joint space, intermaxillary fixation and use of sclerosing agent (sodium tetradecyl sulphate) are recommended for chronic for of TMJ dislocation.
Changes in weight and body composition after orthognathic surgery and jaw fractures: a comparison of miniplates and intermaxillary fixation. Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg 1994; 32(5): 289-92.
The oral effects of prolonged intermaxillary fixation by interdental eyelet wiring.
Key Words: Maxillofacial trauma, mandibular fractures, open reduction, internal fixation, intermaxillary fixation.
A study has demonstrated that mandibular fractures that were hand-held', while bone-plated, had a lower mean number of outer glove perforations than fractures treated with temporary intermaxillary fixation (0.43 compared with 4.62, Pless than 0.0001).20 With the use of MMF, the risk of wire stick injuries and disease transmission is heightened.
In another patient dislocation occurred immediately after release of intermaxillary fixation. In other patients recurrence did not occurred after release of intermaxillary fixation at 6 months follow up.
The aim of this prospective study was to compare the postoperative outcome in 80 mandibular fractures patients, treated by open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) and intermaxillary fixation (IMF) at Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Unit, Khyber College of Dentistry, Peshawar from 10th February 2006 to 9th February 2007.