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A mental mechanism operating outside of and beyond conscious awareness by which certain external attributes, attitudes, or standards are taken within oneself.


the acceptance and incorporation of the standards or beliefs of other persons, or of society, by the individual. Internalization is a basic concept in FREUD's theory of personality development. The child's conscience (SUPEREGO) is formed by internalizing society's MORES, as represented by the parents’ personal values and standards. As suggested by this psychodynamic usage, the total acceptance of beliefs and values is usually implied when the concept is employed in a more general way. However, some expressed attitudes or behaviours may be based on social pressures, such as CONFORMITY, and involve compliance rather than internalization. See also SOCIALIZATION, OVERSOCIALIZED CONCEPTION OF MAN.



transfer inward from without. The concept of internalization entered psychology as a result of the work of the French sociological school (E. Durkheim and others), which linked internalization with the concept of socialization, the adoption of basic categories of individual consciousness from the sphere of social ideas. In the cultural-historical theory of the Soviet psychologist L. S. Vygotskii, the idea of internalization acquired fundamental importance for psychology. One of the basic premises of this theory is that any genuinely human form of the psyche initially evolves as an external, social form of human communication and only then, as a result of internalization, becomes a psychological process for an individual person. Stages of internalization have been traced in detail in works devoted to “intellectual actions.” In such works it has been demonstrated that internalization is not a simple transfer to action on the level of ideas (J. Piaget, Switzerland) but represents the formation of an internal structure of consciousness. Through its accompaniment by several other action changes, such as generalization or reduction, internalization leads to the formation of a new concrete psychological process.


Durkheim, E. “Sotsiologiia i teoriia poznaniia.” Novye idei v sotsiologii, collection 2. St. Petersburg, 1914.
Vygotskii, L. S. hbrannye psikhologicheskie issledovaniia. Moscow, 1956.
Vygotskii, L. G. Razvitie vysshikh psikhicheskikh funktsii. Moscow, 1960.
Gal’perin, P. Ia. “K ucheniiu ob interiorizatsii.” Voprosy psikhologii, 1966, NO. 6.


References in periodicals archive ?
With a few important exceptions of authors using dynamic approaches (see Langlois 1988, Mayer and Argyres 2004, Argyres and Mayer 2007) the internalisation as such, however, is usually assumed to be in place from the outset (as a hierarchical entry mode), or exercised as a one-off switch from externalisation ('market') to internalisation ('hierarchy').
Alternatively, one may envisage internalisation as a stepwise, even incremental process, where effectuated internalisation is synchronised with the underlying drivers of learning, growth, etc.
Three internalisation scenarios may illustrate the potential gains that MNEs may obtain through gradual internalisation in contrast to internalisation as a one-off operation at foreign market entry.
Figure 3 depicts a scenario of immediate internalisation that, for example, may be justified by excessively high anticipated/potential switching costs (Benito et al.
3 is one in which internalisation, although economically justified by potential switching costs, actually is 'premature' inasmuch as the hierarchical operation mode--the wholly-owned subsidiary (WOS)--operates below minimum efficient scale during the first years after market entry, in contrast to, for, example a local, independent licensee that operates several products lines and thereby compensates lacking scale economies with scope economies (see also Fig.
This research also suggests that the type of media men and women consume affects their awareness and internalisation of sociocultural thinness ideals.
Social comparison did predict SATAQ scores, indicating that both men and women who are predisposed to comparing themselves with others report greater awareness and internalisation of thinness norms, consistent with research by Botta (1999), who found that women who reported comparing their bodies with women in the media experienced greater body dissatisfaction.
It may be that exposure to dominant body ideals leads to awareness and internalisation of these apparent norms, or that people who recognise the norms are attracted to the media representations that confirm them.
We can thus see that the internalisation approach, despite its limitations, is capable of extension beyond its traditional confines to encompass management strategies.
A Critical View of Criticisms of the Internalisation Theory of the Multinational Enterprise
The internalisation approach is based on the substitution of management processes for market processes.
The internalisation approach has as its central point of explanation the question of the growth of the firm relative to the market, not relative to another firm.