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in international law, detention of the nationals or property of an enemy or a belligerent. A belligerent will intern enemy merchant ships or take them as prizeprize,
in maritime law, the private property of an enemy that a belligerent captures at sea. For the capture of the vessel or cargo to be lawful it must be made outside neutral waters and by authority of the belligerent.
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, and a neutral should intern both belligerent ships that fail to leave its ports within a specified time and belligerent troops that enter its territory. The practice of detaining persons considered dangerous during a war is often called internment, even though they may not be enemy nationals. In World War II the United States detained persons of Japanese ancestry and German or Italian citizenship in relocation centersrelocation center,
in U.S. history, camp in which Japanese and Japanese-Americans were interned during World War II. Fearing a Japanese invasion, the military leaders, under authority of an executive order, defined (Mar.
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 on the mainland; Japanese and Japanese Americans were also detained in internment camps in Hawaii. The Geneva Convention of 1949 on the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War provides for the unrestricted departure of enemy aliens from the territory of a belligerent at the outbreak of conflict, and the humane treatment of those aliens who choose to remain.



in international law the compulsory detention of foreign citizens by warring or neutral states during a time of armed conflict. Internees are settled in a defined locality which they are forbidden to leave. Internment of foreign civilians is distinguished from the internment of foreign military personnel.

Internment applies mainly in relation to civilians of one of the warring sides in permanent or temporary residence on the territory of the other warring side. Military personnel falling into the hands of the enemy are not internees but prisoners of war. Internment of enemy troops can take place only during an armistice, when military action and consequently the taking of prisoners cease.

Also subject to internment are military personnel of the warring sides arriving on the territory of a neutral state. Interned military personnel are disarmed and subjected to restrictions to prevent them from leaving the territory of the neutral state and resuming military activities. The neutral state supplies the internees with food and clothing and extends other services to them, which gives it the right to compensation after the end of hostilities.

Questions of internment were regulated by various clauses of the Geneva Convention of 1929. The Geneva Convention of 1949—Protection of the Civilian Population in Time of War— regulates in detail the status of foreign citizens and specifies that the place of internment must be outside the zone of military activities and, when possible, be designated by special markings. Internees are supported free of cost by the warring sides (they are supplied with such essentials as food, clothing, and medical help), and they have the right to correspond with relatives and with appropriate international organizations.

During World War II, fascist Germany brutally flouted the norms of international law on internment (for example, with regard to the right of asylum). Also in violation of international law was the internment by Anglo-American occupation authorities of Soviet citizens who had been forcibly transported by the Hitlerites to Germany and other European countries.


References in periodicals archive ?
The same perverse logic was not applicable to the origins of the Second Internment. Lone-wolf attacks from Islamists had occurred, though no available evidence suggests a widespread or even nascent conspiracy.
Historical judgment of the First Internment is marked by consistent, unambiguous condemnation.
Personal Justice Denied opened by calling the First Internment an "extraordinary and unique" event in American history and a "grave injustice" shaped by "race prejudice, war hysteria and a failure of political leadership." (7) Congress then passed the Civil Liberties Act of 1987, which contains near-verbatim excerpts from Personal Justice Denied, most notably the recognition of "grave injustice," the acknowledgment that "these actions were without security reasons," and the description of motivations of prejudice, hysteria, and leadership failure.
internment of Japanese-Americans is widely regarded as a stain on the nation's history.
Yet for all the parallels between Japanese internment during World War II and Trump's proposal, the comparison is hardly exact.
This information stimulated towards the development of this study, which was aimed at assessing the existence of aspects of the hygienist principles in the justifications of court verdicts for adolescents in socio-educational internment. Next, we will present the methodological course followed for this purpose.
The following was considered support material: the Public Defense, list of hearings, the certificate of the infraction and the technical reports elaborated by the socio-educational units for temporary internment or by professionals designated by the Judiciary Power to replace the application of internment, available at the Cense II in Cascavel--PR.
Sixth Ave., where local Japanese-Americans reported for transfer to internment camps.
Himes emphasizes poignant, almost sentimental, images: the image of the Japanese American boy singing in a display of patriotism be ore is internment an d the Mexican American recruits, sharing in Bob's final fate in the army.
(2.) It is important to note that just those Americans of Japanese descent were systematically removed from their homes on the West Coast and relocated to internment camps.
apologized for the internments and paid $20,000 to internees who were still alive.
Thousands of Japanese men, including many living in internment camps, volunteered for the Army, serving in both the Asian and European theaters.