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(ī`ō), in astronomy, one of the 39 known moons, or natural satellites, of JupiterJupiter
, in astronomy, 5th planet from the sun and largest planet of the solar system. Astronomical and Physical Characteristics

Jupiter's orbit lies beyond the asteroid belt at a mean distance of 483.6 million mi (778.
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. Io is subject to Jupiter's enormous tidal forces and is, as a result, the most volcanically active body in the solar system. Its tenuous, mainly sulfur-dioxide atmosphere freezes and forms a solid when Io passes in Jupiter's shadow.


in Greek mythology, daughter of Inachus, king ofo Argos. She was loved by ZeusZeus
, in Greek religion and mythology, son and successor of Kronos as supreme god. His mother, Rhea, immediately after his birth concealed him from Kronos, who, because he was fated to be overthrown by one of his children, ate all his offspring.
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, who, to protect her from HeraHera
, in Greek religion and mythology, queen of the Olympian gods, daughter of Kronos and Rhea. She was the wife and sister of Zeus and the mother of Ares and Hephaestus. A jealous wife, she fought constantly with Zeus and plagued his mistresses and children.
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's jealousy, changed her into a white heifer. Hera, however, was not deceived; she claimed the heifer and sent ArgusArgus
or Argos
, in Greek mythology. 1 Many-eyed monster, also called Panoptes. He guarded Io after she had been changed into a heifer. After Hermes slew the monster, Hera took his eyes and placed them in the tail of her bird, the peacock.
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 to guard it. When HermesHermes,
in Greek religion and mythology, son of Zeus and Maia. His functions were many, but he was primarily the messenger of the gods, particularly of Zeus, and conductor of souls to Hades.
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 killed Argus, Hera tormented Io with a gadfly which drove her across Europe and through Asia, until she was finally allowed to rest in Egypt. There Zeus returned her to human form, and she bore his child Epaphus. Io has been identified with the Egyptian goddess IsisIsis
, nature goddess whose worship, originating in ancient Egypt, gradually extended throughout the lands of the Mediterranean world during the Hellenistic period and became one of the chief religions of the Roman Empire.
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(ÿ -oh) The innermost of the four giant Galilean satellites of Jupiter. It keeps one face permanently toward the planet (see synchronous rotation) as it orbits at a distance of 422 000 km, within Jupiter's magnetosphere. Io is yellow-brown in color, has a high albedo (0.61), and has a diameter of 3630 km. The orbital period of Io is one half that of Europa and one-fourth that of Ganymede; the three satellites are locked into an orbital resonance, the interaction of the satellites having caused their orbital distances to adjust until their periods were common multiples. Early photographs from the Voyager 1 probe March 1979 showed the surface of Io to lack impact craters. An explanation for this was found when intense volcanic action was observed on the satellite: at least nine active volcanoes were seen to eject material over a very wide area; seven were still active when Voyager 2 arrived four months later. Following the six passes of Io made by the Galileo spacecraft during its 33 orbits of Jupiter between 1996 and 2002, scientists now know there are at least 120 active volcanic regions. Few of Io's volcanoes resemble the crater-topped mountains seen on the Earth and Mars. Instead, most of Io's volcanic craters lie in relatively flat regions. Yet half the mountains on Io are located next to volcanic craters.

Io is the most active volcanic body known in the Solar System. The activity is thought to result from heating by tidal forces exerted by Jupiter. There are several types of activity: eruptive plumes, a few of which reach altitudes of hundreds of kilometers; huge calderas (volcanic collapse craters) with associated lava flows and/or surface markings; some possible lava lakes. The first volcano observed by Voyager 1 was an eruptive plume ascending to 280 km and visible above the satellite limb; material was deposited in concentric rings up to about 1400 km across. This volcano has been named Pele. The plume of Loki was active on both Voyager passes, rising to 100 km as measured by Voyager 1 and 200 km as measured by Voyager 2. Many of the plumes, such as that of Prometheus, were 50–120 km high and also apparently long-lived. Ionized matter – sulfur, oxygen, and hydrogen – escapes from the tenuous volcanic atmosphere of Io and forms a torus centered on Io and encompassing the whole of Io's orbit. The particles in the torus glow brightly in the ultraviolet. This matter interacts with Jupiter's magnetosphere: it controls the rate at which Jupiter radiates energy and probably affects aurorae on Jupiter, radio bursts from the planet, and other phenomena. See also Galilean satellites; Jupiter; Jupiter's satellites; Table 2, backmatter.

Collins Dictionary of Astronomy © Market House Books Ltd, 2006
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



in ancient Greek mythology, a priestess of the goddess Hera who captivated Zeus with her beauty. According to one version of the myth, Hera changed Io into a heifer out of jealousy towardher husband Zeus and gave her into the charge of the many-eyed giant Argus, who was killed by Hermes. Hera then set a monstrous gadfly against Io. Io escaped from its stings and reached Egypt, where she was again restored to human form. According to mythological genealogy, the descendants of Io were the Danaids.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.


A satellite of Jupiter; its diameter is 2300 miles (3700 kilometers). Also known as Jupiter I.
(nuclear physics)
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.


seduced by Jupiter in form of a cloud. [Rom. Myth.: Metamorphoses]


having been changed into a heifer by Zeus, pestered by gadfly sent by Hera. [Gk. Myth.: Espy, 292]


changed into heifer by Zeus because of Hera’s jealousy. [Gk. Myth.: Zimmerman, 137]
Allusions—Cultural, Literary, Biblical, and Historical: A Thematic Dictionary. Copyright 2008 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.


Greek myth a maiden loved by Zeus and turned into a white heifer by either Zeus or Hera


the innermost of the four Galilean satellites of Jupiter, displaying intense volcanic activity. Diameter: 3640 km; orbital radius: 422 000 km
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005


(humor, abuse)
Idiotic operator.


The country code for British Indian Ocean territory.
This article is provided by FOLDOC - Free Online Dictionary of Computing (


(1) See information operations.

(2) (Input/Output) The transfer of data between the computer's CPU and a peripheral device. Every transfer consists of input and output operations; hence the term "I/O." A transfer is either output from the CPU and input to the peripheral or output from the peripheral and input to the CPU. See PC input/output.

information operations

Maintaining electronic systems and computer-based information systems while also preventing failure caused by adversaries. In the military spectrum, information operations (IO) support defensive and offensive operations, the latter more commonly known as "information warfare." In the business sector, there is no legal basis for offensive operations. See information warfare.
Copyright © 1981-2019 by The Computer Language Company Inc. All Rights reserved. THIS DEFINITION IS FOR PERSONAL USE ONLY. All other reproduction is strictly prohibited without permission from the publisher.
References in periodicals archive ?
The posterior interosseous artery flap is a type B fasciocutaneous flap according to the Cormak and Lamberty classification.9-11 Its main advantage is that it avoids sacrifising the two main arteries of the forearm.
(a) Median Nerve; (b1) Pronator Teres First Branch; (b2) Pronator Teres Second Branch; (c) Palmaris Longus Branch; (d) Flexor Carpi Radialis Branch; (e) Anterior Interosseous Nerve Branch.
The interosseous membrane serves several biomechanical functions for the stability of the forearm.
The comparative evaluation of the recordings from the second lumbrical muscles for median distal motor latencies and ulnar distal motor latencies obtained from the interosseous muscles is another technique assessing the sensitivity of motor NCS.
Anterior interosseous nerve (AIN) palsy only, 12 patients; posterior interosseous (PIN) palsy only, 13 patients; ulnar palsy only, 0 patients; AIN+PIN palsies, 6 patients; PIN+ulnar palsies, 2 patients.
Supercharged end-to-side anterior interosseous to ulnar motor nerve transfer for intrinsic musculature reinnervation.
The mean interosseous distance with the flexible reamer was 39.0 mm (range, 20-48 mm), and the mean tunnel length in cases that used the rigid reamer was 38.1 mm, range from 20 to 48 mm.
[81] TMS + SAI = SAI in VaD protocol/ [down arrow], SAI in figure-of- AD (abnormal SAI in eight coil/ 75% of AD and in 25% first dorsal of VaD patients) interosseous Nardone Single-pulse [down arrow], SAI in et al.
They are the dorsal carpometacarpal ligament, palmar carpometacarpal ligament, and the two sets of interosseous ligaments.
(7) Exclusion of other diseases (e.g., motor neuron disease, multifocal motor neuropathy, brachial plexopathy, spinal cord tumors, syringomyelia, cervical vertebral abnormalities, anterior interosseous, or deep ulnar neuropathy)
From these patients 5 cases with damage of anterior interosseous nerve were selected (the pseudoanterior interosseous nerve syndrome) [13] and 6 patients presented damage of the ulnar nerve, and radial nerve injury occurred in 1 child, which accounted for 27% and 5% of all damage to the nerves.

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