The sediments of SU3 are fluvial in origin and, based on the dates from SU3, we suggest that the lower part of SU3 corresponds to the middle Valdaj Shestikhino stadial (Schalkholz stadial in Central Europe) and the upper part to the middle Valdaj Leningradskij interstadial
in European Russia (Moershoofd-Hengelo interstadials
in Central Europe) (Velichko et al.
This apparently dates the bone deposits to the Marine Isotope Stage 3 (MIS 3) interstadial
, although I question the reliability of such relatively old radiocarbon dates.
Very clearly the ice retreated far into the Erie Basin in what Dreimanis (1958) calls the Erie Interstadial
. A lake was trapped in the area between the ice and the Defiance Moraine, and then the ice re-advanced nearly to the Wabash Moraine.
Therefore, the Newport wood described in the present study and dated at 30,070 [+ or -] 240 y BP may be the first macrofossil record in Indiana during the time period associated with the Plum Point Interstadial
Cabe recordar que a partir del sondeo GRIP se ha podido discriminar varios periodos dentro del OIS 2 cuya terminologia estamos siguiendo en este trabajo: los complejos interestadiales (Greenland Interstadial
) GI 2 y GI 1, templados, y las fase glaciales o estadiales (Greenland Stadial) GS 2 y GS 1 (esta ultima Younger Dryas, Dryas reciente o Dryas III, en terminos convencionales), que a su vez presentan una serie de subdivisiones menores correspondientes a episodios frios y templados de menor duracion (Broecker, 1992; Johnsen et al., 1992; Bjorck et al., 1998; Walker et al., 1999).
Many of these are related to Early Weichselian interstadials
and to the Eemian interglacial, but some have also deposited in the glacier marginal zone during the Late Weichselian deglaciation.
During the Pleistocene, periods of loess deposition, weathering, and soil formation during interstadials
alternated with periods of cryoplanation and deposition of solifiuction debris in valley sides and bottoms (Wood 1969; Leslie 1973).
Researchers have long wondered whether the warmings, called interstadials
, happened simultaneously in the north and the south.
1981) imply ice advance as late as 13 000 cal yr BP if we consider those organic layers, especially at Viitka, as interstadials
, which afterwards were covered with stadial (Haanja) till.
Three previous ice cores drilled in Greenland had suggested that several warm periods, called interstadials
, punctuated the most recent ice age, which lasted from about 100,000 years ago to 11,000 years ago.
Pollen spectra recovered from the sequence characterize successions of vegetation and climate of the last interglacial and of the majority of the Valdai (Weichselian, Jarva) pleniglacial interstadials
Since the last detailed publication on the Pleistocene vertebrates of Michigan (Wilson 1967), much new information has accumulated: new sites have been found; ranges have been extended; C-14 dates have been obtained; vertebrates have for the first time been identified from a Wisconsinan interstadial
interval; and butchering of extinct proboscideans by humans has been demonstrated at several localities.